استفاده از راهبردهای مناسب تکنیک SWOT در بهسازی و نوسازی بافت فرسوده مطالعه موردی محله سیروس تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

چکیده

اصولاً بافت قدیمی و فرسوده، بافتی می باشد که در فرآیند زمانی طولانی شکل گرفته و تکوین یافته و امروز در محاصره تکنولوژی عصر حاضر گرفتار گردیده است، چنانچه این بافت در گذشته به مقتضای زمان دارای عملکردهای منطقی و سلسله مراتبی بوده ولی امروز از لحاظ ساختاری و عملکردی دچار کمبودهایی شده و آنگونه که باید و شاید نمی تواند جوابگوی نیاز ساکنین خود باشد. برنامه ریزی راهبردی به دلیل ماهیت بلندمدتی که دارد، یکی از ارکان برنامه­های ساماندهی و بهسازی به شمار می­رود. فهم مناسب و استفاده دقیق از برنامه­ریزی راهبردی و ابزارهای تدوین برنامه­های راهبردی، دستیابی به برنامه­های ساماندهی و بهسازی را ممکن می­سازد. بنابراین در این مقاله با استفاده از مدل SWOT راهبردهای بهسازی و نوسازی بافت فرسوده محله سیروس را به دست آوردیم. درنتیجه نتایج تحقیق نشان می­دهد راهبردهای تولید شده بهسازی ونوسازی محله سیروس به عنوان راهنمای تصمیمات، یکی از اجزاء سیستم هدایت، کنترل و برنامه­ریزی بهسازی و نوسازی شهری است. بنابراین بین این راهبردها، ابزار عمل برنامه ریزی (سرمایه گذاری دولتی، مقررات و ...) و سیستم تصمیم­گیری، هماهنگی و هم­سویی لازم به منظور تاثیرگذاری بر بافت فرسوده محله لازم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Proper Strategies for the Improvement and Renovation of the Worn Out Textures of Sirous District in Tehran Using SWOT Technique

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Akbar pour Saraskanroud 1
  • A. Pourahmad 2
  • A. Abedini 3
1 Ph. D. Student of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Ph. D. Student of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Basically an old and worn out texture is a texture which has taken shape and evolved through a long time process and today is surrounded by the present technology. While these textures in the past have had logic performances and hierarchical performances due to time necessities, today they are facing some shortages structurally and functionally. Furthermore, they can not meet the needs of their own residents. Strategic planning is one of the pillars of redevelopment and improvement programs due to its long term nature. Proper understanding and precise use of strategic planning and instruments of strategic programs development makes possible access to redevelopment and improvement programs. So, using SWOT, the improvement and renovation strategies for the worn out textures of Sirous district was obtained in this article. The results of research shows that the produced strategies for improvement and renovation of Sirous district as the guide of decisions is one of the components of orienting, controlling and planning systems of urban improvement and renovation. Thus, among these strategies i. e. , planning instruments (governmental investment, regulations, etc) and decision making system, there is a need to necessary harmony and convergence in order to improve the district worn out texture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Improvement
  • Renovation
  • Worn Texture
  • Strategy
  • Sirous District
  • SWOT

Introduction

Today, the live and active texture of ’yesterday’ looks old and decrepit such that it seems that it has never had a vitality and joyful condition. Neither its body is like that of the old one nor its content! Once it was so attractive and pleasant that used to make the entire passerby to see its beauty and joy for hours. (Jahanshahi, 25:2003). However, today its old atmosphere is an avoiding atmosphere to human. Its space is old due to the fact that we take tradition as equal to oldness. It is static and unmovable since it can not meet our needs. What should we do now ? Should we leave it or observe its death? If so, then we will have a rootless city without identity with no past, no history and no memory. It is even anti-memory, so it will be fair to find a solution, but how? With which attitude? With a body-oriented and engineer-oriented attitude! Or a society-oriented view? Isn’t that a city is a social product and born of human space behavior? If that’s the case, the only approach which can make us closer to the goal, (i. e. renovation and giving life to the old body of old texture) is a systematic study of social and physical environment concurrently. (Pourahmad and Shmaei, 311:2003). Behavioral-space analysis in urban environment is a new topic which has not been noticed by urban researchers considerably, since urban studies in our country has been entangled in the trap of figure-oriented and body-oriented engineers rather than social-oriented and system-oriented engineers. (Hanachi, 22:2003). The old textures of cities in our country had been enjoying a specific dynamism and strength with a proper structure and function in harmony with the needs of its residents. (Zanoozi, 36: 2000). Though, with the abrupt increase of urban changes in recent 4 decades, the cities have not only lost their centrality but also they are not able to adapt themselves with their daily life changes. So that, today they are put forth as urban problematic spots or; in other words as ill-matched patches on the bodies of cities. The lack of a responsible management body which can adapt these textures with the structural and functional new changes based on modernity in cities have placed them in the narrow pass of inability and incompatibility with new needs. These textures not only have lost their indigenous populations, but they have been converted into places for the settlement of immigrants (in particular rural immigrants) and low income stratum who are seeking the cheapest urban spots to be settled. Consequently, it seems that the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the new residents besides the low attention of urban management in presenting facilities to revive these textures have made them more worn out. (Soltani, 20:2000). Basically, the old and worn texture is a texture which has taken shape in the course of long period of time and today is surrounded by the technology of the age. While this texture in the past had a logical and hierarchical performances due to time necessities, but today is facing shortages structurally and functionally and can not meet the needs of its own residents as it should be. (Sheikhi, 14: 1997). Strategic planning is one of the pillars of redevelopment and improvement programs. Proper understanding and precise use of strategic planning and instruments to develop strategic planning makes possible access to redevelopment and improvement programs. (Braison, 70: 2002). So, in this article, efforts have been made to develop improvement and renovation programs for Sirous district by using proper and minute instruments of objectives. The objectives of these articles are:

  1. Assessment of the external and internal environments of Sirous district,
  2. Developing strategies for the improvement and renovation programs in Sirous district.

In general, the most important issues and problems of worn textures can be classified as follows:

-        Socio-Economic Problems: Gradual exit of old residents from the district, migration of noble social strata from the old quarters and their replacement with incongruent migrants who are in lack of any ties to these regions, the growth and expansion of various types of social violations, allocation of old textures to specific and low grade activities which absorb violators and addicts, negative growth rate of household and population, demolishing the past economic structure of the old texture which was based on bazaar, the high cost of renovation of constructional units ( this factor makes private sector investors to distance themselves from investments in these areas), the low income level and inability in private investment and incapability to absorb peoples contributions (Jamal, 29: 2007).

-        Environmental Problems: Another factor which has impacts on the worn out state of a historical texture is environmental pollution. Due to the concentration of business and work place spaces and consequently the establishment of various types of terminals and storerooms, over traffic of cars inside the texture, air and noise pollution takes place. These pollutions reduce the qualitative value of life and welfare of residents. It also stops the growth and development of urban texture, increases migration to that urban area and finally it hinders the innovation of worn out texture. Noise pollution also has impacts on the spirit and body health of the residents and reduces the qualitative and quantitative values of life in that texture. (Habibi and Pourahmad, 58: 2007).

-        The Skeleton and Accessibility Problems: The low quality of the texture and using unfavorable products, full adaptability of the old texture with worn out textures and the existence of various limits of historical monuments, high population density along with low construction density, intensive shortage of urban public services like per capita green space or urban equipments, location improper distribution of urban services, division of lands of the region into small pieces and fine-grained condition of textures, the lack of infrastructures in harmony with the population at the region level such as parking, intensive skeleton vulnerability at the time of natural dangers such as earthquake, using low durable products such as bricks, dried bricks and wood. (Arab Ahmadi, 32: 2007).

 

An Introduction to Sirous District

Sirous district which was named Chalemedian in the past was one of the five districts forming the old Tehran. Sirous district in the urban divisions of Tehran is at district No. 17 of Region No. 12 with an area of about 40 hectares. It is bordered with 15 Khordad street in the north, Ray in the east, Molavi in the south and Mostafa Khomeini in the west of its limits. In three corners related to it, there are important cross sections such as Qiyam square, Molavi intersection and Sirous Intersection. With the establishment of over crossing bridge over Ray street and broadening this pivot, the fourth corner has a disordered situation. Following the destruction of neighboring units, this street has found a destructive and ruined form. The shape of this urban block is irregular trapezoid whose highest side along with 15 Khordad street has 710 meters of length and its shortest side has a 500 meters length. The two neighboring sides of Molavi and Sirous have stretched 650 and 700 meters accordingly. (Tehran Municipality, Tehran, 2007)

 

 

 

 

 


Research Methodology

At the first stage, the improvement and renovation program at Sirous district was developed. For this purpose, first the internal and external environment of the district was evaluated using assessment matrix for internal and external factors. The primary strategies of urban improvement and renovation program were developed through matrix of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In order to determine acceptable strategies, with the help of internal and external matrix and based on the location in the boxes of this matrix, the present position of Sirous district was specified from the viewpoint of worn out condition. Also, the ranking and prioritizing matrix of strategies was used. So in order to identify the strong and weak points (strengths and weaknesses) and also opportunities and threats of Sirous district, the library sources and documents related to the powers and limits of city, regional and national macro plans, improvement and renovation plans of the district under consideration and the urban experts and authorities' views were used. Each of the four fold factors of SWOT were analyzed after identification and at the following stage, SWOT matrix was formed. Then each of the four factors was classified with regard to their importance based on questionnaire and according to the views of urban experts and officials. In this research, Likret spectrum and scale was used to measure the priorities and rank the external and internal factors. (SWOT). Thus, firstly the sample community was specified in order to prioritize the four fold factors including the views of experts and officials of the project of improvement and renovation of respective district. The sample volume was more than 20 cases. Then questionnaires were developed on the areas of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) and using Likret spectrum, they were graded from 1 to 5 for assessment of the community.

 

Internal-External Assessment

Internal and external assessment makes decision makers and planners adopt quantitative assessment in those stages in the process of developing objectives and strategies. (Roberts and Sykes, 20:2000). The small decisions which are made on the relative importance of internal and external factors of Sirous district bring about a possibility to present different objective and strategies effectively.  The total final grades of external factors for Sirous district in the matrix of external factor assessment ( i.e. opportunities and threats) is 40.32 percent ( of  which 34 percent of these factors form opportunities).  This percentage means that the district has not been able to utilize the factors which create opportunities or positions) or it has not been able to distance itself from the factors which cause threat. (Tables No. 1). 

 

Table 1: Matrix of External Factors (Opportunities) and Matrix of External Factors (Threats)

Row

Threats

Frequency

Row

Opportunities

Frequency

Very low

Low

Medium

High

Very high

Very low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

1

General worn condition  of Central Tehran

0

2

18

0

0

1

Possibility of using the district mosque as a center for social institutions

0

2

18

0

0

2

Commercial activities focus

0

6

14

0

0

2

Settlement in Central Tehran

0

0

0

7

13

3

Shortage of public roads and transportation

0

0

20

0

0

3

Relative coordination for the height of monuments in the district ant neighboring areas

0

0

20

0

0

4

Escape of administrative and cultural activities from the city center

0

3

17

0

0

4

Access to urban central services

0

0

20

0

0

5

Urban life recession at night

0

0

20

0

0

5

Neighborhood with Tehran bazaar

0

3

17

0

0

6

Air and noise pollution in the city center

2

10

8

0

0

6

The existence of main road of old bazaar of Nayebalsaltaneh which in the surrounding texture links two streets together

0

0

0

14

6

7

Lack of environment safety

0

2

18

0

0

7

The existence of health centers in neighboring districts

0

6

14

0

0

8

Shortage of open and green spaces

0

0

20

0

0

8

The existence of better educational centers in neighboring districts

0

9

11

0

0

9

The arrival of drugs into the district and misuse the unawareness of residents by drug Mafia

0

0

0

6

14

9

Importance of the limit due to the existence of old monuments and passages

0

8

12

0

0

Table 1 continued

10

Exit of original residents from the city center

0

0

0

9

11

10

The existence of accesses in the surrounding of limits

0

0

0

10

10

11

Tendency of low income people to settle in the city center

0

0

0

12

8

11

Mild slope of district lands in most parts

0

0

0

13

7

12

Lack of interest in investing in worn textures

0

0

0

6

14

12

The possibility of using destructive spaces for the construction of public parking near Naeb passage road

0

0

0

8

12

13

Lack of possibility of attracting people contribution and high  economic standing individuals

0

0

0

8

12

13

Interested old residents

3

10

7

0

0

14

Lack of reference group in the district

0

0

0

12

8

14

Possibility of using internal and external loans

0

0

0

11

9

15

Lack of encouraging approaches

4

4

8

0

0

15

Access to employment facilities in central Tehran

0

0

20

0

0

16

Imposing public rules on specific conditions

0

10

10

0

0

16

Potential of added value of land and estates

0

0

20

0

0

17

Weakness of authorities of local management

4

11

5

0

0

17

Structure of Nayebalsalataneh bazaar as a shopping center

0

5

15

0

0

18

Low managerial life of urban managers ( in particular the mayor)

6

8

8

0

0

18

Economic facilities of owners of commercial centers to change the use or correct it

0

5

15

0

0

19

Various centers of decision making in relation with the urban affairs of the district

0

0

0

11

9

19

The existence of cultural commons in particular religious ones among the residents

0

0

0

10

10

20

Lack of coordination among the legislated rules in the respective organizations

0

0

0

13

7

20

Determination of officials to interfere to reconstruct the district

0

0

20

0

0

21

Shortage of specialized forces in municipality cadre

0

10

10

0

0

21

The existence of regulations related to broadening the passages and interference in roads networks

0

0

0

9

11

22

Imitative form of redevelopment plans nationwide

6

9

5

0

0

22

The existence of regulations related to monuments renovations

0

10

10

0

0

23

Lack of attention to people contribution

0

0

20

0

0

23

Participation of people in administrating the district and renovation plan

8

12

0

0

0

 

24

The availability of necessary bed ground for the formation of people management institutions

0

0

0

9

11

25

Attention of urban management to participation and contribution

0

0

0

9

11

26

Strict treatment with drug addicts

0

9

11

0

0

 

 

Very low score:1 Low score: 2 Average score: 3 High Score : 4 Very high score : 5 The total final scores of external factors for Sirous district in the matrix of external factors assessment (Opportunities and Threats) is 59/68 percent ( of which 52/26 percent are forming the strengths). This percent means that the district has higher strengths as compared with its weak points. So, by presenting proper approaches, it will be possible to use the following strengths (strong points) for the improvement and renovation of worn textures of the district.  The total final scores of internal factors for Sirous district in the matrix of assessment of internal factor are 52/26 percent. This percentage means that from the viewpoint of impact factor in improvement and renovation of worn textures of the district, the internal factors include more than 50 percent. (Tables No. 2).


Table 2: Matrix for the Assessment of Internal Factors (Strengths) and Matrix for the Assessment of Internal Factors (Weak points)

Row

Weak Points

Very low

Low

Average

High

Very high

 

Strong Points

Very low

Low

Average

High

Very high

 

1

Shortage and lack of existence of green space and public open spaces

0

0

0

6

14

1

The existence of Rameshe Religious Place[a place where the martyrdom of the 3rd Imam of Shiite is mourned for] as a center for social solidarity of the district

0

0

0

12

8

 

2

Shortage and lack of diversity of urban performances including social, cultural, educational and recreational spaces

0

0

0

7

13

2

The remaining historical texture

8

9

3

0

0

 

3

Shortage of public services in the district

0

0

20

0

0

3

Pivots of a district remaining from the old Tehran

8

12

0

0

0

 

4

The existence of incompatible use

0

6

14

0

0

4

The possibility of reconstruction and space redevelopment and making new openings in the cross road

10

10

0

0

0

 

5

Weak access of those who drive in particular to the southern part

0

0

0

15

5

 

6

Shortage of urban equipments and installations

0

0

0

8

12

5

The possibility of the creation of urban spaces with identity in main cross roads of bazaar

0

0

0

13

7

 

7

Weakness in collecting and removing garbage in the district

0

4

16

0

0

6

The relatively even height of building accumulation beside each other

6

14

0

0

0

 

8

Busy area and high noise

0

3

17

0

0

7

Easiness in interfering in the texture due to high percent of buildings with one or two floors

0

0

0

6

14

 

9

Intensive worn of skeleton texture of the district

0

0

20

0

0

8

Active margin

10

8

2

0

0

 

Table 2 continued

 

10

High age of monuments and worn condition of residential units

0

0

0

4

16

9

Settlement oldness

0

0

0

0

0

 

11

Non-standard materials used in the structure of most buildings

0

0

0

10

10

10

Rate of high participation in the improvement of district

0

0

0

15

5

 

12

Lack of resistance of monuments against incidents and earthquake

0

0

20

0

0

 

13

Lack of treatment –health spaces

0

0

0

9

11

11

High interest to settle in the district

0

0

0

0

0

 

14

Lack of distinctive inputs

0

7

13

0

0

12

High religious beliefs

0

9

1

0

0

 

15

Lack of public transportation facilities

0

4

16

0

0

13

High interests of households for the housing improvement

11

9

0

0

0

 

16

Lack of public parking lots in the district

15

5

0

0

0

14

Existence of grounds of participation in people

0

8

12

0

0

 

17

Using some of the residential units as storerooms

0

0

0

13

7

15

The existence of hidden and overt citizenship memories in the texture

4

11

5

0

0

 

18

Low quality of visual image

0

0

0

11

9

16

Low rate of house renting as compared with other districts

0

4

16

0

0

 

19

The existence of insecure spaces and places

0

0

20

0

0

 

20

Worn condition of bizarre in most of the route and lack of preservation and renovation of old monuments

0

0

0

15

5

17

Capable previous residents

2

8

10

0

0

 
 

21

Lack of the existence of proper construction model

0

3

17

0

0

18

Private ownership of estates

0

7

13

0

0

 
 

22

Lack of access to lanes at the time of natural risks

0

0

20

0

0

19

Existence of local council

9

8

3

0

0

 

Table 2 continued

 

23

Low width of lanes and passages

0

0

0

7

13

20

Determination of municipality and organization of improvement for contribution

0

2

18

0

0

 

24

Lack of belonging sense to the place and tendency of previous resident to live outside the district

0

0

0

8

12

21

Existence of elder people in the district

0

3

17

0

0

 

25

Existence of traffic problems in surrounding streets

0

4

16

0

0

22

Samples of people cooperation in the affairs of the district

0

10

0

0

0

 

26

Population escape

0

0

0

12

8

 

 

27

Addiction and behavioral abnormalities

0

0

0

3

17

 

28

Settlement of low income people in the district

0

0

0

11

9

 

29

High percentage of single people ( bachelors)

0

0

0

12

8

 

30

Low income of the majority of the residents

0

0

0

5

15

 

31

Unemployment

0

0

0

13

7

 

32

Low saving

0

0

20

0

0

 

33

Incomes of informal sector

10

10

0

0

0

 

34

Being tenant in the case of most of the residents of the district

0

3

17

0

0

 

35

Lack of efficient use of market efficiently and allocation of it to small industrial work places

5

9

6

0

0

 

36

Lack of access of municipality cars to very narrow lanes to remove waste

0

0

20

0

0

 

37

Lack of trust of investors of private sector to the return of capital

0

0

20

0

0

 

38

High rate of population density

0

0

0

13

7

 

39

Weakness of improvement measures by municipality

0

1

19

0

0

 

40

Weakness of programs of organizations which are responsible for services

0

5

15

0

0

 

41

Weakness of programs of organizations in charge of installations

0

6

14

0

0

 

42

Weakness of environmental safety

0

0

20

0

0

 

 Very low score: 1 Low score: 2 Average score: 3 High Score: 4 Very high score: 5

 


Developing Improvement and Renovation Strategies for the Worn Out Textures of Sirous District

Strategies of improvement and renovation of worn out texture of Sirous district makes this district moves out from its present worn situation gradually and achieve its respective position unless it faces an unfavorable situation abruptly. Studying and evaluating the strategies and selecting their most suitable one is to a great extent depending on mental decisions and data. So that, in order to select the most suitable strategies, precise principles and instruments is used for this job. With regard to the identification and analysis of four fold factors of internal and external effective factors in the area under consideration, now we form a SWOT matrix to study the effective strategic factors of improvement and renovation of the district. Thus, considering the weaknesses and strengths and also opportunities and threats affecting the improvement and renovation of worn texture of district, the SWOT matrix is drawn. (Table No. 3).

 

 

Table 3: Skeleton, Socio-Economic and Managerial SWOT of Sirous District

External Conditions

Internal Conditions

Threats

Opportunities

Weaknesses

Strengths

T1- General worn condition of Central Tehran    

T2- Commercial activities focus        

T3- Shortage of public roads and transportation         

T4- Escape of administrative and cultural activities from the city center                                                                 

T5- Urban life recession at night                                                    

T6- Air and noise pollution in the city center      

T7- Lack of environment safety

T8- Shortage of open and green spaces     

T9- The arrival of drugs into the district and misuse the unawareness of residents by drug Mafia                      

T10- Exit of original residents from the city center               

T11- Tendency of low income people to settle in the city center      

T12- Lack of interest in investing in worn textures   

T13- Lack of possibility of attracting people contribution and high economic standing individuals                

T14- Lack of reference group in the district               

T15- Lack of encouraging approaches             

T16- Imposing public rules on specific conditions

T17- Weakness of authorities of local management            

T18- Low managerial life of urban managers ( in particular the mayor)                

T19- Various centers of decision making in relation with the urban affairs of the district

T20- Lack of coordination among the legislated rules in the respective organizations          

T21- Shortage of specialized forces in municipality cadre                 T22- Imitative form of redevelopment plans nationwide                                                                                               T23- Lack of attention to people contribution            

 

O1- Possibility of using the district mosque as a center for social institutions                                                

O2- Settlement in Central Tehran    

O3- Relative coordination for the height of monuments in the district ant neighboring areas

O4- Access to urban central services  

O5- Neighborhood with Tehran bazaar         

O6-The existence of main road of old bazaar of Nayebalsaltaneh which in the surrounding texture links two streets together

O7- The existence of health centers in neighboring districts    O8- The existence of better educational centers in neighboring districts                

O9-Importance of the limit due to the existence of old monuments and passages                               

O10- The existence of accesses in the surrounding of limits  

O11-Mild slope of district lands in most parts

O12-The possibility of using destructive spaces for the construction of public parking near Naeb passage road

O13-Interested old residents                

O14-Possibility of using internal and external loans                

O15-Access to employment facilities in central Tehran                

O16-Potential of added value of land and estates                

                O17- Structure of Nayebalsalataneh bazaar as a shopping center                    

O18-Economic facilities of owners of commercial centers to change the use or correct it

O19-The existence of cultural commons in particular religious ones among the residents                

O20- Determination of officials to interfere to reconstruct the district                

O21-The existence of regulations related to broadening the passages and interference in roads networks O22- The existence of regulations related to monuments renovations                              O23- Participation of people in administrating the district and renovation plan        

O24-The availability of necessary bed ground for the formation of people management institutions                

O25-Attention of urban management to participation and contribution

O26-Strict treatment with drug addicts            

W1- Shortage and lack of green and public open spaces

W2- Shortage and lack of existence of diversity of urban performances including social, cultural, educational and recreational spaces

W3-Shortage of public services in the district

W4- The existence of incompatible uses

W5- Weak access of drivers specially in the southern part

W6-Shorage of urban installations and equipments

W7-Weakness in collecting garbage and removing it

W8-Busy condition and high noise

W9-Intensive worn condition of skeleton textures of district

W10- Old age of monuments and worn condition of residential units

W11- Non-standard materials in the skeleton of most buildings

W12- Lack of resistance of buildings against incidents and earthquake

W13- Shortage of health and treatment spaces

W14- Lack of distinctive entrances

W15- Shortage of public transportation facilities

W16- Lack of public parking in the district

W17- Using some of the residential units as storeroom

\W18-Low quality of visual image

W19- The existence of insecure spaces an places

W20- Worn condition of small roofed bazaar in most of the route and shortage of preservation and renovation of old monuments

W21- The lack of existence of proper construction model

W22- Lack of possibility of access to lanes at the time of natural incidents

W23- Low width of lanes and passages

W24- Lack of existence of belonging sense to place and tendency of individuals

W25- The existence of traffic problems of surrounding streets in particular Mostafa Khomeini street ( Sirous)

W26-Population escape

W27- Addition and behavioral abnormalities

W28- Settlement of low income strata in the district

W29- High rate of bachelors

W30-Low income of majority of residents

W31- Unemployment

W32-Low saving

W34-Renting situation of housing of the majority of residents of the district

W35-Lack of efficient use of small bazaar economically and allocation of it to industrial small work places

W36- Lack of access of municipality cars to very narrow lanes for removing garbage

W37- Lack of trust of private sectors investors to the return of capital

W38-High rate of population density

W39-Weakness of improvement measures by municipality

W40-Weakness of plans of organizations in charge of services

W41-Weakness of plans of organization in charge of installations

W42-Weakness of environmental safety

S1- The existence of Religious Place of Rameshe as a center of social solidarity

S2- The remained historical texture

S3- Pivots of a district remaining from the old Tehran

S4- The possibility of reconstruction and space redevelopment and also making necessary openings in cross roads

S5- The possibility of creation of urban spaces with an identity in the main cross roads of bazaar

S6. The relatively even height of building accumulations beside each other

S7- Easiness of interference in the texture due to high percentage of units with one or two floors

S8- Active margins

S9- Oldness of settlement

S 10- Rate of high tendency to participate in district improvement

S11- High interest of people to settle in the district

S12- High religious beliefs

S13- Households tendency for housing improvement

S14- The existence of grounds for the peoples contribution

S15- The existence of overt and hidden layers of citizenship memories in the texture

S16- Low rate of renting as price of housing as compared with other districts of the city

S17- Capable previous residents

S18- Private ownership of estates

S19-Existence of local councils

S20- Determination of municipality and organization of improvement for participation

S21-The existence of elder and trusted people in the district

S22- Sample of peoples cooperation in district affairs

 

 

 

 

As it is displayed in Table No. 3, in the area under consideration, 22 spots for internal strengths vis a vis 42 internal weaknesses and also 26 external opportunities vis a vis 23 external threats were identified and analyzed in respect of the district. Thus, in total, 48 strengths and opportunities points as privileges and 65 weaknesses and threats were identified as the limits of the district for improvement and renovation.

It can be said that the area under investigation with an average rate of difference has some advantages for development but it is also facing serious obstacles in the path of development. Presenting proper and realistic approaches, the district can move to remove weaknesses and threats and use strengths and opportunities efficiently.

 

Prioritization of SWOT Factors

1- Inter-group prioritization of SWOT factors

SWOT is in lack of a comprehensive assessment for decision making position. Determining the priorities of some factors in groups of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can not solely specify the most important factors. Moreover, in this manner, the importance of factors or assessment of decision making options in accordance with factors can not presented. (Dyson, 2004:632), Since planning procedure is mostly encompassing a great number of standards and their internal dependency, so using SWOT might be insufficient. With regard to the shortages of SWOT, in order to increase their efficiency, some methods are combined with SWOT. (Houben, 1999:132). In this research, list of SWOT factors was prepared in collaboration with authorities and experts within Likert Five Point Scale [This scale is a distance scale comprising of some options. It is a compound scale. Options in this scale show the importance of actors. In other words, through this scale, it is possible to determine the sensitivity of responses towards a factor. This scale is graded from 1 to 5.

1 shows the least important and 5 the most important ones in the research. (Khaki, 2006:258). This scale has been used to measure priority and rank internal and external environment factors of SWOT] and the formulas of relative weight of inter-group for each of the factors was calculated.

Formula 1: Rij= ∑Si. Fi

Rij: Score of factor j from group i

Si: Score of Likert Five-point Scale

Fi: Frequency of options

 

∑R Rij ij

 
 Formula 2: Yij= Rij

Yij: Weight of Factor j from Group I

This is among the methods which is combined with SWOT in order to quantify SWOT factors and prepare grounds for the assessment of the relative importance of factors for each group and in general to assess the decision making position. So that, the whole set of SWOT factors were designed within the format of questionnaire in order to have it weighted and prioritized by the respective authorities and experts. The standard of measure and grading of each of the above factors are such that for each factor a range of 1 to 5 is determined. Number 1 means very low importance, number 2 means low importance, number 3 means average importance, number 4 means high importance and number 5 means very much importance of that factor in the improvement and renovation of the worn texture of Sirous district. Then the collected data were analyzed based on the total of obtained weights, ranking average of these weights and their relative weights. After that, they were placed inside the four fold groups for grading and prioritizing which was discussed in the above Tables. So, after giving weight to the SWOT four fold factors, now we will deal with the ranking and prioritizing of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from the viewpoint of experts and officials.

 

 

Table 4: Ranking and measuring priorities of strengths from the viewpoint of experts and officials

Strengths

Scores

Weight average

Relative Weight

Rank

S1

88

4.4

0.0755

2

S2

35

75.1

0.0300

14

S3

32

6.1

0.0274

17

S4

30

5.2

0.0429

19

Table 4 continued

S5

87

35.4

0.746

3

S6

34

7.2

0.0463

16

S7

94

7.4

0.0806

1

S8

32

6.1

0.0274

18

S9

50

5.2

0.0429

10

S10

85

25.4

0.729

4

S11

50

5.2

0.0429

9

S12

51

55.2

0.043

8

S13

29

45.1

0.0249

22

S14

40

6.2

0.0446

13

S15

41

5.1

0.0352

12

S16

56

8.2

0.0480

6

S17

48

4.2

0.0412

11

S18

53

65.2

0.455

7

S19

34

7.1

0.0292

15

S20

30

9.2

0.0497

20

S21

57

85.2

0.0489

5

S2

30

5.1

0.257

21

 

Table 5: Ranking and Prioritizing Weaknesses from the viewpoint of experts and officials

Weaknesses

Scores

Weight average

Relative weight

Rank

W1

94

7.4

0.0317

4

W2

93

65.4

0.0313

5

W3

60

3

0.0202

20

W4

54

7.2

0.0182

36

W5

85

25.4

0.0286

18

W6

92

6.4

0.0310

6

W7

56

8.2

0.0189

33

W8

57

85.2

0.0192

28

W9

60

3

0.0202

21

W10

96

8.4

0.0323

2

W11

90

5.4

0.0303

8

W12

60

3

0.0202

29

W13

89

55.3

0.0207

9

Table 5 continued

W14

53

65.2

0.0179

39

W15

56

8.2

0.189

32

W16

25

25.1

0.0084

42

W17

87

35.4

0.0293

12

W18

89

45.4

0.0300

11

W19

60

3

0.0202

22

W20

85

25.4

0.0286

19

W21

75

85.2

0.0192

31

W22

60

3

0.0202

23

W23

93

65.4

0.0313

7

W24

88

6.4

0.0310

13

W25

56

8.2

0.0189

35

W26

88

4.4

0.0296

14

W27

97

85.4

0.0327

1

W28

89

45.4

0.0300

10

W29

88

4.4

0.0296

15

W30

95

75.4

0.0320

3

W31

87

35.4

0.0293

16

W32

60

3

0.0202

24

W33

30

5.1

0.0101

41

W34

57

85.2

0.0192

34

W35

41

05.2

0.0138

40

W36

60

3

0.0202

25

W37

60

3

0.0202

26

W38

87

35.4

0.0293

17

W39

58

95.2

0.0199

30

W40

55

75.2

0.0185

37

W41

54

7.2

0.0182

38

W42

60

3

0.0202

27

 

 

 

 

Table 6: Ranking and prioritizing of Opportunities from the viewpoint of experts and officials

Opportunities

Scores

Weights average

Relative weight

Rank

O1

58

9.2

0.0330

16

O2

93

65.4

0.0529

1

O3

60

3

0.0341

15

O4

60

3

0.0341

11

O5

57

85.2

0.0324

17

O6

86

3.4

0.0489

10

O7

54

7.2

0.0307

20

O8

51

55.2

0.0290

22

O9

52

6.2

0.0296

21

O10

90

5.4

0.526

2

O11

87

35.4

0.459

9

O12

90

6.4

0.0523

3

O13

44

2.2

0.0250

25

O14

89

45.4

0.0506

5

O15

60

3

0.0341

12

O16

60

3

0.0341

13

O17

55

75.2

0.0313

18

O18

55

75.2

0.0313

19

O19

90

5.4

0.0512

4

O20

60

3

0.0341

14

O21

89

75.4

0.540

6

O22

50

5.2

0.284

24

O23

32

6.1

0.0182

26

O24

89

55.4

0.517

7

O25

89

55.4

0.517

8

O26

51

55.2

0.0291

23

 

Table 7: Ranking and prioritizing the Threats from the experts and officials

Threats

Scores

Weight average

Relative weight

Rank

T1

58

9.2

0.0387

14

T2

54

7.2

0.0360

16

T3

60

3

0.0400

9

T4

55

85.2

0.0380

15

T5

60

3

0.0400

10

T6

40

3.2

0.307

22

Table 7 continued

T7

60

9.2

0.387

11

T8

60

3

0.400

12

T9

90

7.4

0.637

2

T10

89

55.4

0.0607

1

T11

88

4.4

0.0587

5

T12

90

7.4

0.627

3

T13

82

6.4

0.0613

8

T14

88

4.4

0.0587

6

T15

36

2.2

0.0293

23

T16

50

5.2

0.0333

17

T17

41

5.2

0.0273

20

T18

46

2

0.0267

19

T19

89

45.4

0.593

4

T20

87

35.4

0.580

7

T21

50

5.2

0.0333

18

T22

39

95.1

0.260

21

T23

60

3

0.0400

13

 

 

The results of the study of prioritization of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and also the evaluation of experts and officials of the SWOT factors within the method of relative weighting shows that in the strengths group, the facilitation of interference in the texture is possible due to the high percentage of units with one and two floors (with a relative weight 0. 0806). Also due to the existence of Rameshi religious place as the center of social solidarity of the district (with a relative weight 0. 0755) it is possible to make urban spaces with identity in the main cross roads of bazaar (with the relative weight 0. 746) and these are the strengths of Sirous district in improvement and renovation of worn textures.

 

 

 

2- Prioritizing intra-group of SWOT factors

Prioritizing SWOT factors in separate groups can not show the relative importance of the set of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in relation with each other. So, in this article, after determining the relative priorities of each of factors in separate groups of SWOT as the representative of each group, the experts were asked to compare the four factors of each group with each other in pair and then determine their importance as compared with other factors within the Likert scale. Thus, by calculating the weight of each factor (representative of each group SWOT) of the scaled factors, four groups of SWOT were obtained and for calculating external final priority, the SWOT factors were used.

Formula 3:

Rij=Final weight of factor (intra-group weight)

Wmaxi=Factor weight with highest weight of each group

Rij=Yij. Wmaxi

This output plays an important role in identifying SWOT prioritized factors in improving and renovating the worn out texture of Sirous. They can also serve as a proper base to develop proper strategies. (Table No. 8).


 

 

Table 8: Pair Comparison of the most important four fold factors of SWOT

Relative importance of factors

t12

o2

w27

s7

Improvement and Renovation of Worn Textures of Sirous District

0.5226

4

4

5

1

s7

0.2338

3

4

1

2

w27

0.1696

5

1

25

25

o2

0.0740

1

2

33

25

t12

 

Now we will deal with the final prioritization of SWOT factors in improving and renovating the worn textures of Sirous district.

 

Table 9: Final priority of SWOT factors in line with improvement and renovation of worn texture of the district

Row

Factor

Relative weight

Agent code

1

Facility of interference in the texture due to the existence of high percent of buildings with one and two floors

0.0452

S7

2

The existence of Rameshe religious place as the center of social solidarity of the district

0.0423

S1

3

Possibility of creation of urban spaces with identity in main cross roads of small market passage

0.0419

S5

4

Rate of tendency to high participation in improvement of the district

0.0409

S10

5

The existence of elder people in the district

0.0274

S21

6

Low rate of renting fee and housing price as compared with other districts of city

0.0269

S16

7

Private ownership of estates

0.0255

S18

8

High religious beliefs

0.0245

S12

9

Tendency to settlement in the district

0.0241

S11

10

Old habitation

0.0241

S9

11

Previous powerful residents

0.0231

S17

12

The existence of hidden and overt layers of citizenship memories in the texture

0.0197

S15

13

The existence of peoples participation in people

0.0192

S14

14

The remaining historical texture

0.0168

S2

Table 9 continued

15

The existence of local councils

0.0164

S19

16

The relatively even height of building units near each other

0.0164

S6

17

Pivots of districts remaining from old Tehran

0.0154

S3

18

Active margin

0.0154

S8

19

Determination of municipality and organization of improvement for participation

0.0144

S20

20

Possibility of reconstruction and space redevelopment and making necessary openings in cross roads

0.0144

S4

21

Samples of people cooperation in district affairs

0.0144

S22

22

Tendency of households for housing improvement

0.0140

S13

23

Settlement in central Tehran

0.0090

O2

24

The existence of accesses in the suburb of limits

0.0087

O10

25

Possibility of using destructive spaces for the construction of public parking near Naeb passage

0.0087

O12

26

The existence of cultural commons in particular religions ones among the inhabitants

0.0087

O19

27

Possibility of using local and foreign loans

0.0086

O14

28

Existence of rules related to the widening of passages and interference in road networks

0.0086

O21

29

The availability of necessary bed grounds for the formation of peoples management institutions

0.0086

O24

30

Attention of urban management to contribution

0.0086

O25

31

Mild slope of lands of district in most parts of it

0.0084

O11

32

The existence of old main bazaar of Naebalsaltaneh which links the main street which surrounds the texture (15 Khordad)

0.0083

O6

33

Addition and behavioral abnormalities

0.0077

W27

34

High rate of age of monuments and worn condition of residential units

0.0076

W10

35

Low income of majority of residents

0.0075

W30

36

Shortage and lack of green spaces and public open spaces

0.0074

W1

37

Low width of lanes and passages

0.0073

W23

38

Shortage of urban installations and equipments

0.0073

W6

39

Shortage and lack of diversity of urban performances including social, cultural, educational and recreational spaces

0.0073

W2

40

Non-standard products of the skeleton in most units

0.0071

W11

41

Shortage of heath and treatment spaces

0.0070

W13

42

Settlement of low income people in the district

0.0070

W28

43

Low quality of visual image

0.0070

W18

44

Using some residential units as storerooms

0.0069

W17

45

Lack of belonging sense to location and tendency of old individuals to settle outside the district

0.0069

W24

46

Population escape

0.0069

W26

Table 9 continued

47

High rate of bachelors

0.0069

W29

48

Unemployment

0.0069

W31

49

High rate of population density

0.0069

W38

50

Weak access of those who drive in particular in the southern part

0.0067

W5

51

Worn condition of small market in most of the route and lack of preservation and renovation of old monuments

0.0067

W20

52

Relative coordination of the height of monuments in the district and neighboring areas

0.0058

O3

53

Potential of added value of estates and lands

0.0058

O16

54

Access to urban central services

0.0058

O4

55

Access to the possibilities of employment in central Tehran

0.0058

O15

56

Determination of authorities to interfere in reconstruction of the district

0.0058

O20

57

Possibility of using the mosque of district as the center of social institutions

0.0056

O1

58

Being in neighborhood of Tehran bazaar

0.0056

O5

59

Structure of Nayeb al Saltaneh bazaar as a shopping center

0.0053

O17

60

Economic facilities of owners of business centers to change its use or correct it

0.0053

O18

61

The existence of health and treatment centers in neighboring districts

0.0052

O7

62

Importance of limit due to the existence of old monuments and passages

0.0052

O9

63

Existence of better educational centers in neighboring districts

0.0049

O8

64

Strict treatment of Law Enforcement Forces with drug addicts of the district

0.0049

O26

65

Existence of rules related with renovation of monuments

0.0048

O22

66

Shortage of public services in the district

0.0048

W3

67

Intensive worn conditions of skeleton textures of the district

0.0047

W9

68

The existence of insecure spaces and places

0.0047

W19

69

Lack of access to lanes at the time of natural incidents

0.0047

W22

70

Low saving

0.0047

W32

71

Lack of access of municipality automobiles to very narrow lanes to remove garbage

0.0047

W36

72

Lack of trust of private sector investors in return of capital

0.0047

W37

73

Environmental security weakness

0.0047

W42

74

Exit of noble and original people from the city center

0.0045

T10

75

Arrival of drugs to the district and misuse of drug Mafia from the unawareness of inhabitants

0.0045

T9

76

Lack of tendency to investment in worn textures

0.0045

T12

77

Variety of decision making institutions in relation with the urban affairs of the district

0.0045

T19

78

Busy areas and high noise

0.0045

W8

79

Lack of strength of monuments against incidents and earthquake

0.0045

W12

Table 9 continued

80

Weakness of civil measures by municipality

0.0045

W39

81

Lack of existence of proper construction model

0.0045

W21

82

Shortage of facilities for public transportation

0.0044

W15

83

Weakness in collecting garbage and removing that in the district

0.0044

W7

84

Renting situation of housing of the majority of district residents

0.0044

W34

85

Lack of coordination among legislated rules in the respective organizations

0.0044

T20

86

Tendency of immigrant low income stratum to settlement in city center

0.0044

T11

87

Lack of reference groups in the district

0.0044

T14

88

Existence of traffic problems in surrounding streets in particular Mostafa Khomeini Street (Sirous)

0.0044

W25

89

Existence of incompatible uses

0.0043

W4

90

Interested old residents

0.0043

O13

91

Weakness of plans by organizations which are responsible for services

0.0043

W40

92

Planning weakness of organizations in charge of installations

0.0043

W41

93

Lack of distinctive entries

0.0042

W14

94

Lack of possibility to absorb people contribution and high standing economic people

0.0041

T13

95

Lack of efficient use of small bazaar and allocation of it to small industrial work places

0.0032

W35

96

Contribution of people in administrating the district and renovation plan

0.0031

O23

97

Inefficient public roads and transportation

0.0030

T3

98

Recession of urban life at night

0.0030

T5

99

Lack of environmental safety

0.0030

T7

100

Shortage of open and green spaces

0.0030

T8

101

Lack of attention to peoples contribution

0.0030

T23

102

General worn condition of central Tehran

0.0029

T1

103

Escape of administrative and cultural activities from the city center

0.0028

T4

104

Concentration of commercial activities

0.0027

T2

105

Imposing public regulations on specific conditions

0.0025

T16

106

Shortage of specialized forces in municipality cadre

0.0025

T21

107

Incomes of informal sector

0.0024

W33

108

Short management life of urban mangers ( in particular the mayor)

0.0023

T18

109

Weakness of authorities of local management

0.0021

T17

110

Imitative form of redevelopment plan nationwide

0.0020

T22

111

Air and noise pollution at city center

0.0020

T6

112

Lack of public parking at the district

0.0020

W16

113

Lack of motivating approaches

0.018

T15

 

According to the results, though weaknesses and threats factors of Sirous district have allocated the middle priorities of final matrix to themselves, but the share of strengths and opportunities of the total relative weight of inter-group is about 86 percent. (Table 9 and Diagram 1). This shows the importance of strengths and opportunities factors in line with improvement and renovation of worn out textures of Sirous district. Totally, they prepare conditions upon which it will be possible to develop a strategic program and expand strategies. Furthermore, it will be possible to reduce the threats intensity and scope of weaknesses in line with development of renovation and improvement of worn textures.

 

 

 

Figure 1:  Graphic interpretation of the results of pair comparison of SWOT groups and factors

 


Conclusion

Worn textures are the identity of cities and they should be preserved and utilized. In the far past, the community which used to settle in the old texture enjoyed a good economic standing. Relying on such a capabilities, they had established some monuments with high extraordinary value, whereas the present residents of the texture have a limited income. They are not expected to take steps to revive the texture of the city solely. Also, it can not be expected that in this texture, they should live with all the respective shortages and difficulties and this is not possible. For this reason, some approaches should be presented in order to utilize the existing spaces in the texture to promote the quality of environment and develop urban spaces. Planning for the improvement and renovation of worn texture of Sirous district provided us with the following results:

  • The attitude of decision makers in dealing with the urban worn textures has been unilateral and skeleton-based attitude so far. Moreover, the mutual interaction among the executives, decision makers, decision takers and users has been ignored.
  •  With regard to the lack of tendency of financial contribution of the residents of worn out areas due to low economic standing, construction of proper houses is not an evidence that they want to remain there, so in order to make them remain, it is of high importance to have a strong economic structure in place.
  • The existence of unpredictable and predictable positive or negative impacts that each improvement and renovation plan of urban texture might have on neighboring areas, it is necessary to make a study of neighboring regions.
  • Even if the improvement and renovation programs are efficient in Sirous district, then there might be winners and losers among the residents, in that case, there is a need to make efforts to control the rate of these uneven results.
  • Planning improvement and renovation of worn out textures in micro areas such as Sirous district is feasible. Using the objectives and strategies being put forth, it will be possible to prepare suitable conditions for life.

 Considering the low tendency of the residents to participate in improvement and renovation programs of Sirous district, it is possible to use the religious commonalities as an important factor to create ground and to motivate people for further contribution. The existence of Rameshi religious place in the district can serve as a venue for the formation of peoples group to participate in the process of improvement and renovation of texture.

  • The produced strategies can serve as a guide for decision making, and as a part of the orientation system, controlling and planning for urban improvement and renovation of district. So, among these strategies, there is a need to instrument of planning (governmental investment, regulations, …), decision making system, necessary coordination and convergence in order to have impact on the worn out texture of Sirous district.

 

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