دیدگاه ساکنان روستای وکیل آباد نسبت به سودمندی گردشگری برای مردم محلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

 تعامل های گردشگر و جامعه میزبان از جمله مسایل مهمی است که توجه به آن می تواند در رونق هر چه بیشتر گردشگری مفید باشد و این تحقیق بدین منظور انجام گرفته است . این مقاله نگرش مردم را درباره گردشگری و سودمند بودن آن برای جامعه محلی از دید مردم محلی بررسی می نماید . روش پژوهش , توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی است و از ابزار پرسشنامه جهت جمع آوری استفاده شده است . جهت انجام میانگین , درصد و فراوانی و تعیین پایایی از نرم افزار SPSS استفاده شده است . نمونه آماری بالغ بر 50 نفر بوده است که از طریق نمونه گیری تصادفی حاصل شده است . نتایج حاکی از آن است که مردم محلی در عین اینکه نگرشی مثبت به گردشگری داشته اند , ولی معتقد بودند که سود حاصل از آن به مردم محلی نمی رسد . همچنین نگرانی هایی اجتماعی و زیست محیطی نسبت به پیامدهای گردشگری داشته اند . در عین حال معتقد بودند که خدمات دهی به مردم محلی با گسترش گردشگری کمتر شده است .  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Habitants’ Attitude of Vakil Ababad Village about Tourism Profit for Local People

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Azmi 1
  • B. Imani 2
  • M. Mohammad Jani 3
1 Ph. D Student of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Ph. D Student of Geography and Rural Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 M A Student of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Relationship between tourists and local society is important and focus on it help to tourism development. In this respect, this investigation does for cognition of people's attitude to tourism and its profit for local people. Investigative method was descriptive-survey method and we use from questionnaire for collecting data. In this investigation, we use from SPSS software for analyzing data (for doing mean, frequency and percent). Society sample was 50 and sampling method was simple random sampling. Results say that local people have positive attitude to tourists but they believe that tourism does not have profit for theirs. They have social-economic concerns about tourism effects. Finally, they believe that tourism decrease services to local people.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • attitude
  • Social-economic concern
  • Local society
  • Tourism profit
  • social
  • economic concern
  • Vakil Abad village
  • Sardabe Abgarm

What is problem?

Today, Iran (and other countries) want to expand his economic by tourism. Rural tourism is very important for economic development because it have important role on rural development and therefore planners and experts focus to it. Iran has many places with beautiful landscape (natural and building) and different culture that are attractive for tourists. These help to economic development especially for villages and decrease problems that are in villages (example out-immigration, poverty…). This paper study tourism effects on local people.

The rural tourism has economic, social and environmental dimension and tourism experts focus on it because the tourism has many profit for villages. But there are a questions; what groups use from tourism profits? Do local people use from tourism profit or none local people use from tourism profit? This is the important question that this paper investigates about it.

The rural tourism is a kind of tourism and has many profits (for example decreasing poverty or making job) for remote villages, especially villages that have wealthy culture (WTO: 2005).

Tourism faces two challenges: first, do local people use from tourism profits? The second, what is tourism effects on environment of village (Kadivar et al: 2007)?

Some investigators believe that the rural tourism help to economic benefit in villages and therefore helps to villagers (Eftekhari & et al: 2002:23-40).

Joli loz (1995) believe that income is a important factor that tourism make for people. He believes that jobs in tourism capture by local people and therefore tourism is benefit for theirs (Butler: 2001:4).

But some investigators believe that tourism benefit is for none local people and local people do not use from benefit of tourism. Therefore this paper investigate that what group use from the tourism benefit?

Case study of investigation is Vakil Abad village and questions of this investigative are:

  • What is people' attitude of Vakil Abad about tourists?
  • What groups use from benefit of tourism?
  • What is problem of local people against the tourists?

There are hypotheses that include:

  • benefit of tourism for none local people is more than local people

 

Literature of investigation

Today, the tourism is developing in all countries. Reviews show that wealthy people traveled to villages from later 19th century. Some factors helps to expanding the rural tourism for example: hot water fountain near cities, and health-clean condition in villages. Industrializing and urban development in 19th and 20th century change political and economic context of villages. Kavako (1995) says" immigrants that immigrate to cities from villages and town, now, return to villages for spending leisure and this process is a constant process in EU"(Maria et al:2002: 1101–1110).

The tourism development is important, because it has many advantages for societies that economic is one of them. Economic effects of tourism include:

  • income
  • jobs
  • regenerating government
  • help to developing other sectors of countries
  • protecting from cultural & natural heritage

In social dimension, the tourism helps to developing of facilities for leisure, recreation and business. It services to local people and none local people and develops services that are depend to tourism (Inskeep: 2001).

Totality, the tourism effects on local people in two methods that include:

  • accessibility of local people to tourism opportunity
  • Effects of tourism development in villages, for example increasing costs, jobs.

 

1-Accessibility of local people to tourism opportunity

In developed countries, the tourism identifies as economic activities, but in developing countries the tourism identifies as a recreation activity that its aim is to gain income for poor regions(Liu:2005:159-170).While governments believe that the tourism is a activities for jobs, improving infrastructure and developing society, tourism will identify as a option for development in poor region. Some investigators believe that this view to tourism faces with problems, for example low income, injustice, and social problem in place (Din: 1993:328).

In fact, in developing countries is not important that what groups gain profit from tourism (local people or none local people). Contrast, a new approach presents that its name is "social tourism". This approach believes that local people must gain profit of tourism. Social tourism believes that tourism must not destroy environment. Pros of this approach say that local people do not use from tourism profit and this is a problem that must resolve. Social tourism emphasis on participation of local people and therefore teaching of local people is important (Liu: 2005: 159-170).

 

2-Effects of tourism development in villages

An investigation does in Kan and Sologhan villages. This investigation results that the rural tourism have a little economic profit and it increases costs and trading land. In social dimension, the rural tourism increases literacy, improving health and decreasing immigration. In environmental dimension, the rural tourism destroys plant & animal species, increasing pollution and destroying environment (Mahdavi et al: 2008:39-60).   

Investigators believe that there is relationship between the tourism development and people's attitude about environmental, social and economic effects of tourism (Johnson et al: 1994:630).For example Butler says that there is a straight relationship between negative attitudes of people about tourism and its development (Akis etal: 1996:481). Yasal and Martin say that in first step of tourism cycle, people's attitude about tourism is positive, but after time, it change because hazard of tourism appear (Johnson etal: 1994:482). Alen and et al's investigations in villages show that tourism development change people's attitude toward negative attitude about tourism (Smith and Krannich: 1998:785).

 

Investigative method

Investigative method was descriptive-survey and we use from questionnaire for collecting data. The questionnaire includes 11 statements and 3 close questions and 2 open questions. In end of questionnaire, some questions ask about character of respondents (for example age, gender…). Statistics methods include per cent, mean, frequency that analyze by SPSS software. Statistical society was 50(from 150 in total) that calculate by Cochran formula [1]. Reliability calculates by Cronbach's alpha that shows in table 1. It shows thst Questionnaire was reliable.

 

Table 1: Cronbach's alpha

Number

Attitude

Cronbach's alpha

1

Respondents attitude about tourism

0/68

 

 

Figure 1: map of Vakil Abad Village

 Source: (Housing foundation of Islamic revolution: 2006)

 


Characters of Investigative place

Vakil Abad village locates in 28 km of Northwest Ardebil city. This village locates in 3736'-3837' latitude and 4841'-4747' longitude (Advisors engineering of city aspect: 2008: 29). Geographical map shows in figure 1.

Sardabeh fountain is famous fountain in region. This fountain locates in 27km of Ardabil Northwest in Vakil Abad village. Other fountains include: Yal soee (Bad Ab), seven block fountain (Chakhmakhloo), seven blocks fountain (Goysoo), twin seven block fountain (Ahandar) (Syami Asl: 2001: 56-103). Figure 2 shows some interesting locations in Vakil Abad Village.

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: some interesting place in Vakil Abad Village


Descriptive information

Most of respondents include men (%96) (table 2). Degrees of respondents were including: under diploma (%58), illiteracy (%24), and diploma (% 18) (table 3). Mean was 38 years old and most of respondents born in 1981 and least of respondents born 1946(chart 1).

 

 

Table 2: Gender situation

statement

frequency

percent

men

48

96

women

2

4

total

50

100

 

Table 3: Degree situation

statement

frequency

percent

Illiteracy

12

24

Under diploma

29

58

diploma

9

18

total

50

100

 

 

Figure 3: Chart1 Respondents' age distribution

 


Question1: what is habitant's attitude of Vakil Abad village about tourists?

Local people's Attitude about tourists was positive that calculate by Likert scale (table 4, 5). They were agreement with the tourism development in their village (table 6). They were ready for helping to the tourism development (table 7). Though, local people have criticism to tourists that include:

  • Tourists damage gardens and farms;
  • The tourists pollute village;
  • The local people believe that the tourists are bothersome;
  • The local people believe that tourism development decrease services to villagers.

 

 

Table 4: the local people's attitude about the tourists

Row

Statements

Mean

Std.deviation

C.V

attitude

1

The tourists insult to the local people

3/26

0/82

0/24

Disagree

2

If I have power, I prohibit entrance of tourists to village,

3/26

1

0/30

Disagree

3

The tourism increase immigration impetus to cities among youth

3/22

0/81

0/25

Disagree

4

The tourism decreases bad behavior among youth

3/12

0/89

0/28

Disagree

5

The tourism increase job opportunity among youth

2/88

0/98

0/34

Disagree

6

The tourism increase costs

2/84

0/95

0/33

Disagree

7

The tourism increase income in village

2/80

0/90

0/32

Disagree

8

The tourism destroy garden and farms

2/42

0/92

0/38

agreement

9

The tourism advantage is rather than harm

1/88

1/02

0/54

agreement

10

The tourism development decrease services to local people

1/86

0/88

0/47

agreement

11

The tourism pollutes village

1/74

0/69

0/39

agreement

12

The local people believe that the theorists are bothersome

1/60

0/83

0/51

agreement

13

I agree with the tourism development

1/54

0/73

0/47

agreement

Areement1………2/5………4 disagree

 

Table 5: Respondents' attitude about the tourists

attitude

mean

Attitude situation

Respondents' attitude about the tourists

 

2/19

positive

Positive: 1………2/5

Negative: 2/5………4 disagree

Table 6: Respondents' attitude about the tourism development

statement

frequency

percent

agreement

45

90

disagreement

5

10

total

50

100

 

Table 7: agreement/disagreement of people about participation in the tourism development

statement

frequency

percent

absolutely agreement

28

56

agreement

17

34

disagreement

2

4

absolutely disagreement

3

6

total

50

100

 

 

The local people that were agreement with the tourism development believe that the tourism can:

  • Increase their crop production;
  • popularize their villages;
  • increase job and income
  • increase impetus among authorities for better services;
  • Help to spend leisure and selling milk, meat…[2]

 

Question 2: What groups use from the tourism advantages?

An assumption present:

  • Benefit of tourism for none local people is more than local people.

Many local people believe that the tourism is useful for theirs. But they think that some problems exist. For example a man said:"the tourism makes income and job, if county authorities permit" or another man said:" if the tourism develops, it probably causes that we use from the tourism advantage in future, if the county authority permit to us". These answers show that some local people believe that the tourism advantages are not for them. With more investigation, we understand that there are many problems against local people for using from the tourism advantages. Some people said:

  • "only none local people get profit from the tourism advantage;
  • Local people get pollution and waste from the tourism, not anything;
  • The tourism expand bad behavior in village;
  • Te tourisms damage farms, make voice and pollute water.

In Likert scale (table 4), we said that local people believe that the tourism do not make income for local people, too. Although they believe that the tourism has potential for increasing income for theirs.

Some people believe that the tourism can make high income (table 8) but they believe that the tourism advantage get by none local people (table 9). Some groups that get the tourism advantage include:

  • Water and waste bureau because it rent out water fountain to a agency;
  •  The agency that rent water fountain;
  • None local drivers that get money from passengers (This question and their answers get from open question).

 

 

Table 8: more benefit of the tourism for none local people

Statements

Frequency

Percent

Absolutely agreement

23

46

Agreement

16

32

Disagreement

5

10

Absolutely disagreement

6

12

total

50

100

 

Table 9: the groups that profit from the tourism

Statements

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

Local people

14

28

29/8

none local people

33

66

70/2

Total

47

94

100

Missing value

3

6

 

total

50

100

 

 

 

People believe that the tourism advantage for none local people is more than local people (table 8 and 9). Therefore the investigative assumption accepted. 

 

 Question 3: what are the tourists' problems for local people?

We want from local people that said what groups of the tourists are bothersome for theirs. They answered "inside tourists (that are from same Province) make most problems for theirs" (table 10), because they:

  • Are impolitely;
  • Are rude;
  • Pollute their villages.

 

 

Table 10: the groups that profit from the tourism

Statements

Frequency

Percent

Valid percent

The outside tourists

5

10

11/4

The inside tourists

22

44

50

Nothing groups

16

32

36/4

Two groups

1

2

2/3

Total

44

88

100

Missing value

6

12

 

total

50

100

 

 


Local people's recommendations for tourism improvement

  • Improving roads, water tube, gas, health services;
  • Developing interesting sites for the tourists, not only hot water fountain, but also other sites that are attractive for tourists;
  • Developing parking and streets;
  • Expanding hotels, motels;
  • Improving sanitary situation of region;
  • Resigning hot water fountain management to local people;
  • Controlling costs in village
  •  Hot water fountain roads expand;
  • The tourism activities is seasonal, in village and it is the problem that must resolve;
  • Hot water fountain roads must asphalt;
  • Propaganda must develop, for example, catalogs help to identification of village to the tourists. 

 

Conclusion

In this investigation, we study tourism profit for local people. In question 1, we understand that the tourism has advantages that include: introduction of village to tourists and selling crops to theirs. Though the tourism development decrease services to inhabitants.  

In question 2 ( and investigative assumption), we understand that local people were un- satisfaction, because they believe that none local people get more advantages from the tourism than theirs. They want that the tourism advantage increase for them.

In question 3, people believe that environmental pollution and moral problems are the tourism problems that it shows local people and none local people have different culture.

Finally people believe that it is essential that tourism services and propaganda increase and they believe that the tourism do not focus only to hot water fountain. Because Vakil Abad Village have other places that are attractive for tourists.

Recommendation

  1. First problem was pollution in village. Therefore, we advice that plans design for cleaning village. Thus, volunteer groups and personnel of county can help to cleaning village.
  2. Loans and credits of banks (or legal prohibition against none local investors' activities) are tools that increase participation of local people in tourism development.
  3. Teaching to the tourists is important. Distribution of catalog is profit that help to introduction cultural people to tourists.
 

[1] Statistical society calculate by Cochran formula

[2] This question and their answers get from open question

 

References

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