عنوان مقاله [English]
Slum is a character of urbanization and urban is the main character of industrial society. In pre-industrial societies, production activities concentrated in rural areas, the main activity was agriculture.and farmers formed much of the work force, while the population of cities, small towns and many residents had no significant employment base. With the advent of the industrial revolution changed all these dimensions and entering new industries, the need for labor increased in urban areas, thus a major migration to the cities, villages spread (Mohseni, 1998). Today, all cities are faced with the phenomenon marginalized, so that the Babar mentioned to some slum (kind of marginalized) in England in the 100 years ago and refers them knows from the
Industrial Revolution (Mumtaz Babar, 2001). Demographic changes in recent decades have left dramatic effects on the socio-economic and physical structure of the country. Increased population displacement and migration, and they have points of deprived areas, causing regional imbalance that can be rooted in the distribution of resources in these areas. Meanwhile, cities lead ball kidnapped every day on the number of their inhabitants will be added. Why migration to cities has remarkable speed and is devastated villages (Rahnema, 1999). However, the main problem marginalized in developing countries lies in some of the resources such that the size 30 to 70 percent of the population of many cities in developing countries are announced, because the extent of this phenomenon has been causing problems Acute in these countries (Moharram-Nejad, 2004).in Iran the formation of massive Marginalized early decades of this century in particular has been the decade of Hejri 1340. When expansion of urban facilities and communication networks as well as increased revenue from oil, the causes creating the boom towns and city attractions provided while land reform and agricultural mechanization, and lack of attention to the fundamental transformation of rural and agricultural sector, Repulsion can exacerbate rural (Ahmadian, 1992). So that the urbanization rate of about one-fifth of the population in Eighty years ago, now has more than two thirds (Naghdi, 2002). Marginalized in most developing countries and Iran is important, so study and identify of problems and provide solutions for marginalized highlight the importance of proper and adequate research done anywhere in the country. Rabbani et al (2009) in their study on identifying the main causes of the formation of marginalized areas in the region of Isfahan Dark millet and show that attraction and repulsion between economic, features, ease of housing and land, ethnic integration, type of ethnicity And types of jobs associated with the Slum is a significant. Mohammadi and colleagues (2008) in a study to examine the challenges marginalized in the city of Lorestan Kuhdasht, the results suggest that the most important challenges of marginalized areas of the city Kuhdasht Is lack proper sewage systems and financial problems and lack of income.
Challenges in the region Dohelkouh –e Birjand
Challenges and problems are numerous in Dohelkouh city of Birjand; these challenges in four main groups are divided:
Economic challenges b) social challenges c) challenges of educational - health d) welfare challenges.
Economic challenges 1-1. Financial problems and lack of income; 1-2. Unemployment and lack of permanent jobs.
Social Challenges 2-1multi-ethnic context, 2-2 High social deviations such as robbery, murder and prostitution; 3-2. Population density and high fertility rates.
3) Factors of educational - health 3-1. Lack of education and health facilities; 3-2. Low levels of literacy and health.
4) 4-1 welfare challenges. Lack of communication facilities to the city center; 4-2. Asphalt and lack of sewage systems.
This method of survey research is descriptive. Population in this study are 2500 inhabitants of Dohelkouh, from among, the random sampling using the formula Cochrane and with error probability 1 / 0 (according to the problems of material and time study), 129 Owner selected as a Sample. To determine the sample size the following formula was used: ( p=q=0/5)
The data collected in this study was a questionnaire. The validity of this questionnaire was approved by experts and scholars owner. To determine the reliability of the pilot study using Cronbach's alpha test was used. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument equal to the sum Collection 79 / 0 respectively, which indicates reliability, was acceptable. According to the study purpose, priorities and challenges existing in the region Dohelkouh of Birjand, data collection collected by questionnaire technique AHP (AHP), the method of group decision making in complex environments is evaluated and has been processed.
Based on the results of integration options and the criteria according to the research purpose (Fig. 12) can be concluded that the challenges in the region between Dohelkouh Birjand, welfare is the most important challenge And educational challenge - health is the least important, the end results show that the Slum margin challenges of Dohelkouh city of Birjand region respectively is welfare challenges, economic challenges, social challenges and the challenges of health- education.
Chart12. The finaloption ofDohelkouhchallenges ofmarginalizedBirjandregionaccording to criteriaand objective.
So that the same expression, the purpose of this Research was study and prioritize of the challenges marginalized Dohelkouh city of Birjand region therefore According to the review discussions was discussed economic challenges, social, welfare and health - education. This study used data from the hierarchical analysis analyzed the results of their analysis is as follows:
1 - According to the results of hierarchical analysis model, the lack of communication facilities to the city of Birjand, financial problems and lack of income, unemployment and false employment are respectively entitled a higher priority than other problems presented.
2 - the most important challenges in the region of Dohelkouh is welfare challenge. This is due to lack of amenities, including a lack of communication facilities and lack of downtown is paved and sewer system.
3 - The second major challenge in the study area and the final model using hierarchical analysis that was obtained is the economic challenge. This can be caused by low income and high unemployment in existence between residents of that area.
4 - The third important challenge of Dohelkouh regional is social challenges. Because of the different ethnic and social distortions prevalent in the region.
Slum) is dependent on two cultural systems (rural and urban and yet no one, not quite belonging, and desire. Being on the sidelines leads the disorganization of the former value system and sense of relative freedom from the type of urban social control and a lack of cohesion and solidarity creates the talent and capabilities in addition to increasing growth of social harm is causing disorder and order Public safety.