عنوان مقاله [English]
As a direct result of migrations rising and population growth, particularly in developing and undeveloped countries, the population of cities was increased. Different results and problems such as density, pollution, unemployment, housing shortage and urban services, have been caused by the fast population growth across the developing countries during last three decades (Atash & Shirazi Beheshtiha, 1998:1). First and foremost, developing of living in cities following with its special problems has necessitated finding some solutions in order to optimize citizen’s life (Zarabi & Ghanbari, 2010: 1).
In the majority of historical periods, from the first civilization, new towns have
been built across the world (B, Leonard; 1993:23). Construction of new towns in Iran could be surveyed before and after the revolution (Ziari; 2006:412). In this article will be tried to investigate the success degree and performance of new town’s master plan of Binalood.
The descriptive- analytical method has been used in this research. The main aim of this survey is the evaluation of implementation degree of master plan of new town of Binalood. This new town is located 55 Km away of western south of Mashhad and it has been built in order to absorb Mashhad’s extra population.
The master plan of Binalood was approved by the law established the Supreme Council of Architecture, in 2002.2.28 (International magazine of Asian economic; 2009: 7). In follow, implementation of four main factors of this master plan will be evaluated the population, employment, housing and land uses of Binalood new town.
3-1- Evaluation of population implementation degree of town
Although, this new town was anticipated to populate from the year 2003 in order to residence, it had not any population till 2005 and from this time onward, it has started to populate, related to elementary conditions and its population reached to 264 persons, at the end of 2006 (www.ntoir.gov.ir). This value reached to 3454 persons at the end of 2008. It should be mentioned that, this more than 13folds increase of town’s population is due to adding two villages, Avarshk and Fakhr-e-Davood, to new town limits of the legal and privacy of Binalood in order to use of population potential within these two villages.
Table1. Evaluation of population implementation degree
Resource: Master plan of Binalood, home health of Avarshk and Fakhr-e- Davood
3-2- Evaluation of employment implementation degree of town
The employment implementation degree was equivalent with one thousands job opportunities across the Binalood new town, in the year of 2003 (Naghavi zadeh and Negahban Marvi; 2006:408). Five years later, 2008, these job opportunities have been increased to 5200, because of industrial units, especially Khorasan Irankhodro.
Table2. Evaluation of employment implementation degree
Resource: Master plan of Binalood, Field studies and authors calculations
3-3- Evaluation of housing implementation degree
According to master plan of Binalood new town, the number of required housing was anticipated 10186 for the year 2008 (Consulting engineers of Iran Amko, 2001: 349) but, by using the calculation of building permit numbers it was cleared that only 1313 buildings were built by the end of 2008 (new town development company, 2009) which shows that, 12.89 percent of anticipated plan were implemented.
Table 3. Evaluation of housing implementation degree
Total required housing
Resource: Master plan of Binalood and new town development company of Binalood
The cause of unimplementation of anticipated housing units’ number not only was due to non implementation of anticipated population and required installations and infrastructures but also, was resulted of land board games and its cost between the years 2005 and 2008.
According to the results of this research, it has been investigated that, master plan of Binalood was unsuccessful in order to achieve its aims by the end of 2011. The investigations on assessed factors show that, none of them have been implemented completely. It should be emphasized the, the population, employment, housing were 5.66%, 35.36% and 9.46% of anticipated values, respectively. This was follow with, employment and housing and population implementation, 5.66%, has inefficient position. Finally, it should purpose that, the most important problems of implementation of this town including, insufficient infrastructures, required installations and shortage of different services must be solve.