عنوان مقاله [English]
Issue of sustainable development and especially sustainable urban development has been one of the most important concerns of policy makers and planners since the Rio Conference. This point of view was given form environmental, economic, managerial and social comments that have collected from all fields of university studies about cities. With assuming “compact city form” as the stable urban form and also regarding to prevent suburbs spread of Tehran metropolis subject entitled as
“organizing and protecting the city’s boundary and preventing any spread of span area”, the various aspects of Tehran sustainability, according to the characteristics of compact city, is necessary to study. Issue of social stability in the compact city model has become a challenging subject among researchers and planners. Some of them believe that if cities become more dense then social stability decreases. But others argue that denser cities have more social stable positions.
To sale building density as a one of the most important sources of income for Tehran Municipality became rampant during the decade of nineties. This change has had different effects to urban region. This has various impacts on increase of pollution, low standard of urban services, traffic problems and disturb of social coherence. So research and explore with literature review attentions in Tehran city with real data will be the best way for understanding of density's decrement affects. Clearly, compact city and sustainability are from western theoretical achievements and not related to Iranian cities. But using of these theories is the way to find Iranian theories about affect of densities to social sustainability. And it will show that how much different is between western and Iranian cities from point of views and theoretical achievements.
Due to the necessity and importance of social stability in Tehran metropolitan and also according to its planned vision, this study discussed about the social stability in various area of Tehran. In addition, social stability level in some regions with different population density are investigated and analyzed. This study is not pursuing to establish relationship between density and social stability. Also, factor analysis was used for defining of primary factors of the research and expert's comments and factors' load were used for naming these new factors.
Library studies and statistics collects, building an analytic model and indexes, using of experts for finalizing analytic model, statistics analysis and mathematical calculation, factors naming by attention to factors' load and experts Opinions, Conclusion and analysis of results by attention to experts Opinions, is the steps of doing this research in order.
This research showed that social sustainability contains, Development and access to facilities, Medical and health's share, Cultural development and Voluntary participation, in order. The Correlation shows that there is negative and significant relationship between "Development and access to facilities" and "Cultural development". Result of that correlation was about -0.881 which is intensive relationship. Clearly, it means that we will lose social sustainability. However, this result is not reliable reason to accept or reject of positive or negative correlation between density and social sustainability because analysis have done in one city where it has not had clear organized plans for compressed constructions. Perhaps if social, economic, technical and environmental prerequisites of Compression are provided in Iranian's cities, different results will be achievable.
In Comparison between pictures of Tehran density and social stability, it is clear that central regions of Tehran with low densities rather have higher social stabilities. Also, Southern regions of Tehran which have higher densities have had low social sustainability. Therefore, kind of densities that created in Tehran regions of municipality not related to factors' increment of welfare and social. It means this Situation does not create sustainable areas.
However, results of this study indicated that increasing density at 20 districts of Tehran caused to decrease the social sustainability. Therefore, more attention must be paid to social aspects of development because with reduction of the social sustainability in societies, economic and environmental sustainability and finally in total city sustainability will be at risk.
In addition, correlation between density and rate of University education is about -0.834 and correlation between density and ratio of uneducated women to uneducated men is about +0.439. These indices had the most important effects in decrement of social sustainability. Finally, in this situation, more compressed districts of Tehran have had less welfare and cultural sustainability. Although, results does not mean that increment of density always causes decrement of sustainability. But it is acceptable that in this position, Tehran statistics shows that model of development of Tehran in density not along with social sustainability. If we want to discus about factors of sustainable development, we have to prepare Prerequisite of this development.
From other vision we can understand that history of urbanization and cultural attitudes is the most important reason for this result. If we want to find affect of something in their social position we have to know their feelings and needs about that change