عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Today, tourism activity as a non-smoke industry has been considered as a reason from one side and as a consequence of globalization from another side. (Mow forth and Munt, 2003, P9). Thus tourism planning is considered as one of the significant aspects in regional and national management of each country. Regardless of the necessities, the importance of Tourism is to the extent that human is invited to this issue in Holy Quran. It is completely evident that concerning these issue natural pleasure areas has an important place for human to spend their leisure time and pleasure areas are planned based on capacities and existing natural resources of each area or at least is an important factor to identify a place as pleasure area. It is evident that in such circumstances it is important to maintain dynamics, quality and quantity of these natural resources in order to continuous productivity and providing a reasonable tourism experience to the passengers.(Kessler 1994). Therefore considering that the natural resources are very vulnerable and sensitive which are God's gifts and product of the nature and since they have beauties and aesthetic and educational values, they are liked by people to spend their leisure time there and evaluation and examination of pleasure areas carrying capacity gets importance. Identifying carrying capacity for all pleasure areas (whether natural or man-made) not only results in maintaining their potential values specially in natural areas but also it provides an ideal quality of bioenvironmental , visional , psychological and social characteristics, which are necessary issues to acquire an acceptable experience for tourists( Nahrli & Rezaei 1990). In this article tourism carrying capacity of Zanjanrood Riverine will be examined based on expectation and establishment of various tourism activities and their comparative potentialities. The objective of this article is quantitative estimation of the number of tourists in Zanjanrood area by maintaining ideal tourism experience and not damaging tourist attractions and resources of human and natural environments. Moreover it should not be considered as a threat for the host society based on specific sustainable development rules and regulations.
Research methods are mainly regulated based on the nature of the topic and objectives of each research. According to research objective, a combination of discovering method , explanation and analysis to achieve the required information is selected and in the process of a library examination and internet search, research and practical articles as well as case studies outcomes or the summary of reports published in national and international scientific-research magazines relating to carrying capacity were extracted and studied and by comparing theoretical basis and applied methods in them it is tried to introduce concepts and framework of methodology of carrying capacity. It is also tried to study physical carrying capacity (PCC) and real carrying capacity (RCC) in Zanjanrood area.
A) Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC)
The area of appropriate tourism limit (A) is equal to 37 Hectares which would change to square meter. The amount of required space for each tourist for extended entertainment according to standards is 30 meter and its RF is:
B) Real Carrying Capacity (RCC)
One of the most significant bio environmental elements is slope, lands coverage and ground waters that each of them makes some difficulties for the tourists. These elements either donât have the capability of having tourists or in some cases the presence of the tourist results in the damage of environment.
Lands coverage (water or rain planting)
Although the tourist area of the river outskirt of Zanjanroud is considered as the point of tourist activities of the region, we should not forget that the type of land coverage is not appropriate for developing touristy activities and presence of the tourists. The main function of this area is agriculture but in accordance with its different spaces it could have tourist function as well which is done in the form of Agro Tourism. From 200 hectares space, about 1629797 square meters which is 81/4%of the total area includes planting, agricultural and gardening lands.
Being appropriate with the type of the function of the lands equal to 37 hectares for the total space is convenient for the presence of the tourists.
In the slope layers 0-50% there is a capability for tourist activities that the slope of 0-80% is appropriate for focused pleasure, 0-25% for developed pleasure of the 1st type and 25-50% appropriate for developed pleasure of the 2nd type. So the slopes with over 50% donât have the capability for tourist activities. In this are there is no slope over 50%.
One of the limitations which should be considered in real carrying capacity (RCC) is the ground waters.
The extent of ground waters of Zanjanroud is 15 meters from each side in accordance with existing rules and regulations. The deducted area for the purpose of ground waters of the site is 07931 square meters which includes 5/3% of the total space.
Therefore the bio environmental capacity of the area approximately is 1476 people. Of course the real capacity could be estimated after designing and establishment of the desired functions in the special area along with calculation of the total area of each of service, cultural and installation functions.
In this article considering the available information we only would examine the bio-environmental aspect of the real carrying capacity.
In planning for developing the quantity resulting from the estimation of carrying capacity, as a special characteristic for the area under development, gives the possibility to the evaluators and decision makers that by knowing the permitted amount or the total resources of the desired land to regulate their plans in a way that in long term they make sure that the area would keep its natural capacity and productivity and its ecosystem processes. Hence by estimation of carrying capacity we could consider a trustable quantitative basis for decision making in the field of bearable thresholds for accepting the over weight resulted from productivity to be provided to the planners. During the recent years the places like Zanjanroud which we have many similar place like it, have been welcomed by many tourists. But their view towards this area was enjoying the visional beauties rather than tourist point of vies so we experience a wrong management system on these areas. The present research in addition to providing the theoretical principals endeavors to identify both physical and real tourist carrying capacities of Zanjanrood outskirt. Thus, by considering the above mentioned issues and applying these capacities to provide a solution to enhance the tourist capability of this area. In estimation of the carrying capacity, elements like training the tourists, average of duration of stay, tourists characteristics and host society , geographical concentration of tourism, season, type of tourism activities, access to specific sites, access to infrastructures, and possible additional capacities are of the elements which influence the capacity og the area. The tourists who have environmental information are responsible about the environment and would like to have a positive effect on the visiting environment.