عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Geometry plans and spatial perspective in geomorphology has made a new morphology known as systematic geomorphology or functional geomorphology (Summerfield, 1998: 11). With the arrival of spatial thinking in geomorphology, new concepts were introduced and several other factors like direction, distance, relationship, scale, and border and new terms were included in the spatial analysis understanding and using which is binding on geomorphology studies. It may be argued that with the arrival of the concept of space-transtextuality and concepts related to it in geomorphology, the capability of this knowledge in social-behavioral analysis and explanation and analysis of human geography concepts such as spatial identity and many other reasons of existence and extinction in geographical phenomena might be multiplied by hundred. This article intends to explain space-transtextuality according to written documents and attempts to explain new fields. The results obtained point to the fact that:
â Examples of transtextuality concept are explainable both in form and in geomorphological processes.
â Introducing the concept of transtextuality in geomorphology can provide a new foundation in classification of regions and explaining spatial differences and similarities and spatial communication patterns in the space.
Some scholars, like Spirn (1998) view space as having a structure like language, but these similarities do not reside solely in their structural unity (Spirn, 1998). Here, there is another issue which is known as space-transtextuality. The literary texts are assumed to have a very important role in giving meaning to a word and in many cases, the words convey different meanings in different contexts to the reader. This suggests that words can have several meanings and depending on the context in which they appear they reflect specific meanings and concepts and in fact, they give identity and sense to the text. What provided here as a summary is described and explained as perspectivism by residency architects (Bertalanffy, 1987).
In this theory, the focus is on the fact that every perspective as the largest descriptor unit of space has a text and elements and the elements of each perspective in that perspective unit define its own self and demonstrate its attributes, functions and certain concepts.
Another concept which was first introduced in the field of literature and has lots of instances in geography and especially geomorphology is transtextuality.
Transtextuality is a branch of semiotics that studies the formation of meaning and sense-making process in different texts and contexts and offers a new attitude on affinities and similarity of texts (Namvar Motlagh, 2011). Gerard Genette defines transtextuality as formal or semantic similarity between a text with other texts and then defines each type and names them (Genette, 1972). The term space-transtextuality is a term borrowed from Genette's transtextuality and since location or in other words the space is the main element in the analysis of geography thus adding this word shows its belonging to the knowledge of geography and its shows any similarity between perspectives in geographic space.
Review of literature
Transtextuality is a branch of semiotics that studies the formation of meaning and sense-making process in different texts and contexts and offers a new attitude on affinities and similarity of texts (Namvar Motlagh, 2011). The concept of intertextuality is rooted in the background of literature. Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtine (1970) arguing the theory of the relation between utterances, paved the ground for intertextuality theory. Though Bakhtine did not use the term in his writings, he is the most important figure in discussing this concept. Julia Kristeva, the creator of the word intertextuality, opened new horizons in the study of this theory. Kristeva brought this concept to the field of French literary criticism and theory, when reviewing Bakhtine's ideas and theories (Kristeva, 1986). Among other founders of these studies, we can refer to Roland Barthes, Laurent Jenny, Michael Riffaterre and Gerard Genette. Studies on intertextuality in Iran started with a translation of a book entitled "Intertextuality" by Graham Allen in 2001 and researchers like Sasani (2004) and Namvar Motlagh (2007) have made great contributions to this field.
Methodology and Instruments
Since this paper presents a theoretical derivation and a translation of a theory of literary knowledge to the knowledge of geomorphology, first the theoretical foundation of transtextuality theory were analyzed according to the main sources of this issue and then considering the geographical perspectives as physical geography texts, a detailed comparison was made. In searching geomorphology texts, some very similar concepts like Davis's concept of multi-period roughness and the concept of consistent multi-images and its closeness in meaning were specified with some of the implications of this theory. These similarities helped to analyze some other instances of the concept of transtextuality especially in the discussions of space in geography and instances of samples were reread.
All meanings studied in the concept of transtextuality by Genette are named here as the concept of space-transtextuality and then five other concepts of Intertextuality, Paratextuality, Metatextuality, Architectuality and Hypertextuality introduced by her, which consider the relations between texts, were discussed and equivalent forms were found.
The concept of intertextuality was introduced based on copresence relation, which means the presence of one similar element in two texts. In other words, whenever an element of a text (text 1) is present in the second text, the relation between the two texts is known as intertextuality relation. This concept was named as space intertextuality and it refers to the common spatial element in two different geographic perspectives. This common element might be a joint process or a figurative phenomenon.
Genette argues that rarely a text exists barely and it is often surrounded by other texts which directly or indirectly encompass it. These texts, which encompass the main text like a satellite, are called paratext. Paratexts are like the text threshold i.e. in order to be able to enter the main text world, we should pass some thresholds.
This concept is known as space paratextuality and is true for the border of peripheral systems so that to enter from a peripheral system to another peripheral system, it never confronted a sharp and linear boundary and thus fuzzy logic is used to determine the spatial limits and boarders and the scientific logic (zero and one) cannot indicate the boundaries between a peripheral system. The instances of this concept are numerous in geography.
With regard to this concept, Genette believes that the third relation which is mostly called interpretation and connects a text to another text with no requirement for the existence of text is known as metatextuality. Thus, whenever text 1 reviews and interprets text 2, their relation is known as metatextuality as text 2 is considered as a metatext without the presence of text 1 and can explain, reject or confirm text 1.
This concept is known as space metatextuality and is mainly concerned with phenomena and processes which unconsciously compare them with the main geographical text and for explaining main geographical text discussing the issue of space metatextuality is logically necessary.
Genette knows architectuality as anatomy and typological reading of literary texts and believes that though over time, forms of art and literature undergo fundamental changes the relationship between the structures of a text last typologically and the relation of a written document with the type to which it belongs is explainable.
In geomorphology this concept is known as space architectuality and is more explainable than what Genette refers to. Here, we can explain and discuss the structural similarity between two heterogeneous geographical texts in addition to explaining its own structure and provide a basis for the flow of matter and energy in environmental systems and comparing them with each other. In geomorphology and geography numerous instances and implications of this concept are discussable.
Genette believes that hypertextuality reviews the relation between two texts, but contrary to intertextuality it is not based on copresence rather based on eclipse in other words, in hypertextuality the effect of one text on another text is investigated not its presence (Genette,1982). In other words, texts which are taken from other texts constitute the study domain of hypertextuality while the first text is among the main causes of the second text (Allen, 2001).
This concept has a long history in geomorphology and has gained the geographer's attention since Davis. This concept was proposed by Davis when discussing multi-period roughness and what he mentioned was in response to objectives made against distant geography theory by geographers. Later with the introduction of climate change issue and displacement of design-making systems and the effect initial forms had on later changes, Palimpsest notion was used for this concept.
If we accept Thomas Samuel Kuhn's (1962) theory on paradigm's shift and their effect in knowledge development and change (Hart, 1986), then Genette's theory, entitled transtextuality should be considered as a new realm of knowledge which reveals the scope of our understanding of texts and the way our written texts are influenced by others texts. The introduction of space- transtextuality in geomorphology, while exemplifying and coining terms in this field, can expose deeper aspects of geographic and geomorphic landscapes to geographical analysis. Another role that space- transtextuality can play in the application area is providing a new method in classifying peripheral systems based on five main axis in space- transtextuality. It seems that space- transtextuality can clarify the deep effect of the relation and connection of geomorphology with human and social geography.