عنوان مقاله [English]
As we know, many of today's environmental problems are the result of unsustainable living patterns. According to Mollison most of todayâs problems result from a lack of taking personal responsibility in life. The consumptive lifestyle and the excessive accumulation of wealth, power, and land has led to the ecological threats mankind is facing today. Loss of wetland ecosystems is for unsustainable living pattern also. Just wetland ecosystem destruction due to natural factors such as climate change, drought and low rainfall, but due to increasing human incorrect activities, including Drying of wetlands, inappropriate use of wetland resources such as water, vegetation, water pollution and waste. Studies show that rural communities of the three dimensions of economic meaning dependence of economies and livelihoods, social - cultural meaning relationship with wetland and ecological including effects on wetlands associated with wetland ecosystem. If each of these three dimensions is unstable, the wetland ecosystem will be unstable. Therefore, study the pattern of life of rural communities surrounding wetland is necessary to find reasonable solutions for the sustainability of rural communities and ecosystem stability. In response to ecological, social and economic challenges of the unsustainable living patterns, Ecovillage model has been appearing worldwide. They are designed to create a supportive social with low environmental impact. It is a model for promoting sustainable living patterns with addresses environmental, social and economic Instabilities by implementing sustainable structures and methods. Overall, this study this study aimed to evaluate level of sustainability of lifestyle based on Ecovillage model in the villages of surrounding of Miankale and Lapo Zaghmarz wetlands.
Methodology is descriptive- analytic and surveying. The independent variable in this research is sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. Based on research findings, 15 factors include of 6 factors for ecological sustainability, 4 factors for economic sustainability and 5 factors for social sustainability have been obtained to assess level of sustainability of lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. Research case study consisted of villageâs of around of Miankale and Lapo wetlands in Mazandaran and Golestan Province, that based on factors of settling in basin of wetland, settling in 1000 meters to rivers, setting in 8 kilometers of wetland, Population density and economic dependence on wetland, 13 villages were selected. Research population consisted of villagerâs 13 villages in Behshar, Galoga, Bandargaz and Torkman Township (townshipâs surrounding wetlands) that with Cochran method 360 were selected as research sample. Reliability of Questionnaire with Cronbach Alpha method (0.947) and validity of Questionnaire with KMO test were confirmed. After data gathering, assessment sustainability level of lifestyle of rural communities was analyzed with one sample t-test test by SPSS software and Barometer of Sustainability (for assessment human Welfare and sustainability of the Natural ecosystem) and Radar of Sustainability or AMOEBA by EXEL software.
The results in terms of one sample t-test test and the mean value 1.77 indicate villages of surrounding of Miankale and Lapo wetlands have a relatively poor level of sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. The difference in the level of alpha 0.05 (Sig = 0.000) is significant. In terms of dimension, the results indicate low levels of sustainability based on Ecovillage model in all three in the study area. This difference is significant at the alpha level (Sig = 0.000). Also dimension of ecological with mean value 1.93 is more sustainable than social dimension with mean value 1.82 and economic dimension with mean value 1.56 for sustainable lifestyle in the villages of around wetland in studied area. Terms of Alan Prescott classes of assessment, sustainability level of lifestyle based on Ecovillage model in rural areas with a score of 0.441 on average stability (0.6 to 0.4) is. Sustainability Level of dimension was also evaluated. Sustainability Level of ecological dimension with a score of 0.512 and social dimensions with a score 0.423 are average and sustainability Level economic dimension with a score 0.388 is low. Also sustainability level of living pattern assess by Barometer Model. Results indicate human welfare with a score 0.408 and sustainability of natural ecosystem with a score 0.512 is average.
The results show that in rural communities of surrounding wetland, living pattern based on Ecovillage Model is unsustainable. Rural communities in all three ecological, Social- cultural and economic dimensions relationship with wetland ecosystem are unstable. In the ecological, physical system of villages were nearly consistent with the environment. Other parts of the ecological including waste management, wastewater management, Consumption patterns and etc are lack of balance with wetland ecosystems. The rural economy system focus on traditional economic practices and principles of sustainable living including alternative livelihood strategies and local trade and exchange there is in villages. In Social systems, villagerâs ecological understanding, knowledge and attitudes towards place or sense of place and responsibility is high, because villagers of wetland surrounding have understood importance of wetland ecosystems for their livelihood and economic survival. Overall, the results indicate despite the adoption of sustainable rural development strategy as a thinking and paradigm, it has not been considered in Villages in the study area by Policy makers and planners. On wetland ecosystems,
Wetlands management is not based on the relationship between planners and researchers with villagers and farmers of wetland. Also Wetlands protection program is only limited to wetlands and regional approach to wetlands is not considered.
Keywords: Ecovillage Model Sustainable Lifestyle Rural Community Miankale and lapo wetlands.