Passive Defense: a strategy for defending territory



Strategies of territorial defense are a national issue that consider on the agenda of most governments. Strategies agendas affected by spatial situation, regional balance and natural characteristics of each land. Various geography of Iran leads to special defense strategies.
To develop passive defense strategies, theoretical concepts are main fundamental topic which was perused along 8years war between Iraq and Iran. This approach was applied in Khuzestan along war which could be a needed concept for planners now. The main factor for passive defense in Khuzestan refers to water problem.
Along Iran-Iraq war 5 models have been used in relation water scarcity including:
1- Water Lands Model, 2- Inter-Water Bands Model, 3- Artificial Flood Model, 4- Huge Flood Model, and 5- Hur Management Model
The water land model means water distribution on soil surface to saturate soil as it is impossible to move floats in this condition. The inter-water band model involves hydrological network which distribute water in the plain. This model is applicable for plain areas same Azadegan plain and marginal zones of Hurs located Khuzestan. Establishing dike and levee causes hard moving for persons. Artificial flood model consider flood controlled in marginal rivers. Rivers in the Khuzestan are moving ridge. This situation provides an impossible way in the river paths for enemy. Huge flood model has been used in critical conditions to destroy enemy’s location in sensitive areas. Hur management model means management of natural hurs and pits based on purposes. Khuzestan is a plain with flat patches called Sahan in local language. This pits develop pond levels same lakes. In other hand, deep pits supply water to establish vegetation cover mainly canebrake that called Hur.
Generally, based on Khuzestan topography and climate conditions, this area are a passive defense for water.
Four big dams including Shahid Abbaspour, Karoon, Dez and Maroon may storage more than 10 billion cubic meters which could be dischargeable in critical periods. This volume of water could be used in war as passive defense.