نویسندگان

چکیده

  لیشمانیوز بیماری انگلی است که به وسیله نیش پشه خاکی ماده به انسان انتقال می یابد و دو نوع اصلی آن لیشمانیای جلدی و احشائی است. شیوع این بیماری در برخی از استان های ایران نظیر اصفهان، فارس، خراسان، خوزستان، کرمان و یزد بسیار چشمگیر است. استان یزد با میزان بروز 170 نفر در صد هزار نفر جمعیت در سال 1998 در مقام نخست آلودگی سالک جلدی در سطح کشور قرار دارد همچنین شیوع و انتشار این بیماری تحت تاثیر مسائل اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی به ویژه شرایط محیطی و اکولوژیکی است. در تحقیق حاضر رابطه بین پوشش گیاهی با میزان شیوع و گسترش این بیماری در سطح دشت یزد- اردکان به عنوان یکی از نقاط آلوده کشور با استفاده از تکنیک های سنجش از دور و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. از تصاویر ماهواره ای سنجنده لندست ETM + و تصاویر ارتفاعی رادار برای استخراج پوشش گیاهی از طریق مدل شاخص پوشش گیاهی ( NDVI ) استفاده به عمل آمد و اطلاعات مربوط به میزان شیوع این بیماری در سطح مناطق آلوده نیز از مراکز بهداشتی و درمانی جمع آوری گردید. مقایسه پراکنش فضائی موارد بیماری با وضعیت پوشش گیاهی نشان می دهد که بیشترین میزان شیوع بیماری سالک جلدی در مناطقی با پائین ترین میزان پوشش گیاهی متمرکز گردیده است. همچنین نتایج حاصل از بررسی عناصر اقلیمی موثر در شیوع بیماری سالک جلدی با استفاده از روش LSD فیشر نیز نشان دهنده این واقعیت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis Relationship between Vegetation Cover and Salak Skin Disease in Yazd-Ardakan Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gh. Mozaffari
  • F. Bakhshizadeh
  • M. Gheibi

چکیده [English]

  Analysis Relationship between Vegetation Cover and Salak Skin Disease in Yazd-Ardakan Plain      Gh . Mozaffari. ( * )   Assistante Professor of Climatology, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran   Received: April 17, 2010 / Accepted: February 16, 2011, 47-50 P   e-mail: gmozafari@yazduni.ac.ir     F. Bakhshizadeh.   M.A. Student of Climatology, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran     M. Gheibi.   M.A. Student of Geography and urban, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran          Extended abstract   1- Intro duction   Salak/Leishmaniasis is a parasite disease that is transmitted by the bite of infected female sand flies. This disease has been reported in all countries except Australia and South Antarctic. The principal focuses of leishmaniasis are located approximately between 28 to 42 degree north latitude. Leishmaniasis is also reported in Yazd province, Leishmaniasis is divided into two major group, rural and urban, usually the dog and human are urban reservoir(dry salak) and rodents are rural reservoir (wet salak).In this research, we analyzed correlation between vegetation cover and disease prevalence in Yazd-Ardakan plain.      2- Methodology   -The study area   Yazd-Ardakan plain located in one of the barred plains central plateau of Iran in Yazd province and have climatically conditions very hot and dry and adverse weather conditions at the surface on so that excluding the high plains which located in mountainous areas and highlands, other areas of vegetation conditions are not favorable conditions, Just in elevations Shirkooh due to the precipitation received only modest conditions are more favorable. Quality ranges from the slopes of the Shirkooh pans are better than the parts.   -Incidence data and information salak   The data of disease prevalence as monthly during the years 1997 to 2009 are taken from Medical Sciences university of Yazd.   - Satellite images   For investigating correlation between vegetation cover and disease prevalence, it is very important to know about vegetation distribution. So has been used the satellite images from landsat E.T.M, in 2002 and radar images for extraction vegetation cover by NDVI [1] . In this study were used the Arc hydro and digital elevation model (DEM) [2] and Erdas software version 9.1 and Arcgis 9.3.1.   - plant Indicators   In this study, the vegetation map was produced by Landsat E.T.M 2002. This index was calculated by subtracting the values of brightness in the infrared band (band 3) and near infrared (band 4) by the following equation:   NDVI = Band4 – Band3 / Band4 + Band3   According interpretation of these calculations, the region are classified into six classes: non-coverage, low coverage, medium coverage, high coverage and the coverage very high class.     3- Discussion   In recent years due to living conditions in the surrounding towns and geographic distribution development, new focuses of the disease have been spread. One major focus of this disease in the province of Yazd is Yazd -Ardakan plain, that in the range of plain includes trifocal polluted rural areas of Ardakan counties (chah Afzal, Hossen abad, Ahmmad abad, tork abad and Ardakan suburb), Meybod (Bafroeeh) that disease in this area was rural leishmaniasis and Yazd was urban Leishmania.   The factor of vegetation cover affected directly and indirectly on the incidence of leishmaniasis and sand flies biology. The vegetation classes and their buffer were overlapped with disease cases. In certain geographic perspective, the importance of all elements in the disease epidemiologic chain is linked that led to the creation of regional high-capacity Risk (disease). Comparing spatial models of human disease with vegetation display that the highest incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis vegetation is concentrated in areas with the lowest amount of coverage as the dominant.     4- Conclusion   In this research, high disease cases have adjustment with little to no vegetation cover. The results of this study, is similar with results of correlation analysis between sandflies and vegetation density of mosquitoes in Brazil (Bavia et al, 2005). The percentages of vegetation cover show salak focuses in Ardakan and Meybod are wet and dry salak that climatic conditions confirmed it. The vegetation cover of Yazd emphasized dry salak or urban salak. Based on the results get of Fisher's LSD method, the average incidence of disease incidence are different in Yazd and Meybod with Ardakan, (Meybod Yazd).     References   Abdi, O, shetabi, S.H (2005).Evaluating the ETM sensor capabilities of satellite data on forest land separating the Zagros mountain areas (study area Khorram abad), Geomatics Conference 84, the mapping country organization.   Alavi Panah, S. K (2003). Application of Remote Sensing in Geology (Earth Sciences), TehranUni.publications.   Anisi, B, (2001). The malaria risk zoning in Kahnooj using with satellite image, M.S. geography, Trabiat Modares.   Barbosa, A (2005). Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems and risk of American Visceral Leishmanisis in Bahia, Brazil.   Bavia, M.E, and et.al (2005). Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems and risk of American Visceral Leishmanisis in Bahia, Brazil, No 47, PP 165–169.   Darvish Sefat, A and et al (2007). 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Predicting geographic variation in cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia.   Shokoee, H (1992).Philosophy of geography, Gitashnasy publication.   Statistical Center of Iran (2006). General Census of Population and Housing Yazd.   Sudhakar,S, and et al(2006). Mapping of risk prone areas of Kala-Azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis) in parts of Bihar state, India: an R.S and G.I.S approach.   The country's forests and rangelands organization, (2007). Landsat satellite images of Yazd province in 2002.   The Yazd university of Medical Sciences, (2010).cutaneous salak disease data.   Vahabzadeh, A (2007), the introduction of environment foundations, Mashhad University Jihad Pub.   W.H.O Export Committee (2010). The Leishmaniasis, Technical Report Series 701.   WHO Export Committee (2010). Epidemiological Aspect, Control of the Leishmaniasis, W.H.O, Technical Report Series 793.     [1] - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index   [2] -Digital Elevation Model

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salak
  • Yazd-Ardakan
  • Lieshmania
  • Plant Coverage
  • G.I.S
  • R.S
  • Yazd
  • Ardakan