گردشگری از مهمترین فعالیتهای انسان معاصر است که همراه با بوجود آوردن تغییراتی شگرف در سیمای زمین، اوضاع سیاسی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی و روش زندگی انسانها را دگرگون می سازد. همچنین این مقوله یکی از عوامل بسیار مهم در راستای تبادل فرهنگی و آشنایی با ملل دیگر از ابعاد متعدد طبیعی، فرهنگی و. .. می باشد، یکی از انواع مهم گردشگری، گردشگری روستایی می باشد، که امروزه جایگاه بسیار بالایی در مطالعات مربوط به توریسم و گردشگری به خود اختصاص داده است. هدف کلی از انجام این تحقیق، تحلیل عوامل موثر بر توسعه گردشگری روستایی از دیدگاه روستائیان استان چهارمحال و بختیاری بود. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی – پیمایشی در روستاهای هدف گردشگری در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری به انجام رسیده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه روستاییان روستاهای هدف گردشگری استان چهارمحال و بختیاری بود (21548 N= )، که تعداد 264 نفر(سرپرست) از آنها براساس جدول بارتلت، به عنوان نمونه آماری تعیین و از روش تصادفی منظم یا سیستماتیک انتخاب شدند. دادهها با استفاده از پرسشنامه ای روا و پایا گردآوری و با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS 15 و EXCEL تجزیه و تحلیل شده است. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان داد که هفت عامل برنامهریزی دولتی، مشارکت، فرهنگی – اجتماعی، اقتصادی، بهداشتی و محیط زیست، امنیت و آرامش و تبلیغات و سودمندی در مجموع 04/72 درصد واریانس عوامل موثر بر توسعه گردشگری در این استان را تبیین کرده اند. همچنین نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون چندگانه نشان داد که شش متغیر عامل برنامه ریزی دولتی، مشارکت، فرهنگی – اجتماعی، اقتصادی، بهداشتی و محیط زیست، امنیت و آرامش در شش گام وارد معادله شدند و در مجموع 2/67 درصد از تغییرات متغییر وابسته تحقیق را تبیین کردند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis the effective factors on improvement of rural tourism in viewpoint of villagers of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiyari province
Tourism is most important issue of today's in societies, which challenged in political, economic and cultural situations and living method of human. According to world tourism organization annually more than 600 million people visit from attractive places of the world, that portion of Iran is 2 million. These Statistics are thinkable; as a result research in this regard is essential especially in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary province that is one of the most attractive regions in Iran country. Ensuring the sustainability of tourism has become the main challenge of those involved in the development and management of this vibrant sector of activity.
Also the tourism is economic and social concept that it purchases and sale countries cultural and natural heritage and they can create more employment situations. Rural tourism is an appropriate option for create revenue and employment and positive changes in rural income. With regard to tourism importance in different context and also this issue that Iran in historical and cultural monument is one of 10 important countries in the word. And Iran in term of ecotourism attraction and climate diversity is one of five attractive countries in the word. We have a question that do we have conduct a survey in this province about factor affecting on tourism development? Do we conduct a survey about the target villager's problems from rural view point? Then analysis the information gathering from this target population that have direct interaction with rural tourisms to identify and analyze factor affecting on rural tourism development in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary province is essential. The purpose of this study is investigating factors influencing on feasibility of tourism development from villagers viewpoint and then identifying challenges and barriers of tourism development.
The paradigm of this research was quantitative and the research design for this study was a descriptive and correlation method. Research population consisted all of villager's of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary Province (N=21548) that based on Bartlett table 264 (supervisors) were selected as research sample with stratified sampling method. The independent variables in this research were all factors that influence on tourism development in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiary province and the dependent variable was villager's viewpoints about tourism development feasibility in this region. Questionnaire (that developed by researchers base on literature rearview) and interview consisted the means for data gathering. Reliability and validity were of instrument were confirmed and after data gathering data were analyzed by SPSS 15 and EXCEL software.
Based on the perception of the respondents and ordinal factor analysis, the factors were categorized into seven groups, namely public planning, participation, cultural-social, economic, healthy- environment, safety and advertisement- beneficiary that totally explained 72.04 percent of tourism development variations. Also the result of multiple regression showed that public planning, participation, cultural-social, economic, healthy- environment, safety factors were entered in equation and 67.2 percent of dependent variable (development rural tourism) variation were explained by these factors. Public planning is insurance to provide lifetime benefit of host society, guest (tourists), natural resources and cultural heritage conservation. In this research public planning explained more than 15 percent of dependent variable. On the most important in each society progress and applied research output is mention to people participation in problem solving. Also according to different researches in tourism issues show that tourism entrance in the society cause increasing in relationship and communication and increasing in people participation in social activities. One of the organizational dimensions of rural tourism management in Iran is develop cooperative of rural tourism in rural regions that can be operation to economic and cultural aims.
Researchers believe that planning and management of tourism are intersection concept that comprehensive approach needs to intersection coordination between different sections. Then have been proposed to public support from rural tourism and actual planning in this context with persuasion private sector investment in this industry. More and better public service in fundamental affairs like accessible roads and facilitating access to rural regions, create appropriate residency and service centers with high quality for tourism and also pay attention by public office to rural with tourist attending and increasing facilities in rural can create job situation by this industry. However codify and performance comprehensive program in cultural, economic, legal, environmental and social dimensions study without public institutions sharing is not feasible.
As cultural attraction is part of tourism attraction, in this regard was proposed:
Predicating cultural aspects and dissemination it from different ways like hand writing, mass media and web as tourism development context in the region.
Appropriate investigation of cultural and education sectors is appropriate contact with tourist.
Renewable traditional jobs with indigenous culture like hand croft and provide it to tourist.
Although advertisement and its beneficiary is the last factor that arrived in factor analysis but this component is most important factor in tourism development. Then persuasion local people to spontaneous action in context of advertisement in rural area by provide brochure, pictures for tourists in this regard is efficient