بحث پدافند غیر عامل به خصوص بکارگیری ملاحظات پدافند غیر عامل در ساخت فضاهای شهری و همچنین ساختمانهای عمومی تاریخچهای طولانی دارد. صحت این ادعا را میتوان در جنگهای صدر اسلام و تدابیر دفاعی همچون حفر خندق، ساخت برج و بارو و ... جستجو نمود، با توجه به پیشرفت تکنولوژی و تأثیر آن در گسترش سلاحهای کشتار جمعی نیاز به پیشرفت در ملاحظات پدافند غیر عامل در کاهش تلفات بیش از پیش احساس میگردد. با توجه به این که کشور ایران دارای اهداف و خطمشیهای راهبردی مثل اقتدارگرایی، عزتطلبی، حفظ تمامیت ارضی، استقلال سیاسی، الگوی پیشرفت بومی و ... است و همچنین به دلیل قرارگیری در خاورمیانه و موقعیتهای منحصر به فرد ژئوپولیتیک، ژئواستراتژیک، ژئواکونومیک و ... بکارگیری ملاحظات پدافندی در ساخت شهرها بسیار مهم است. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی است و متغیرهای مورد بررسی شامل شناسایی ساختمانهای اداری حیاتی، حساس و مهم شهر شهریار، به منظور کاهش خسارتهای ناشی از حملات دشمن است. روش جمعآوری اطلاعات عمدتاً کتابخانهای و با توجه به نوع تحقیق از مطالعات میدانی (مصاحبه) نیز استفاده شده است. در این مقاله از روش ماتریسی برای بررسی انطباق مکانی سازمانهای اداری شهریار با اصول پدافند غیر عامل استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان دهنده عدم رعایت اصول پدافند غیر عامل در شهرک اداری شهریار است بدین طریق میتوان اقدامات پیشگیرانه را قبل از وقوع بحران برای کاهش خسارات جانی و مالی در مهمترین ساختمانهای شهر، جایی که این تلفات از بقیه نقاط شهر بیشتر است، انجام داد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Position analysis of Shahriar official city based on passive defense principles
The issue of passive defense has a long history especially in construction of urban spaces as well as public buildings. The accuracy of this claim can be found in Initial wars of Islam and defensive measures such as digging ditches, making a fort. Considering the improvement in technology and its effect on the development of WMD, the need for improvement in considerations of passive defense for reducing casualties of war is more felt.Since Iran is a country with strategic objectives and strategies such as: authoritarianism, self-seeking, preservation of territorial integrity, political independence, the pattern of local development, etc. and also due its location in the Middle East and having
unique geopolitical, geostrategic, geo-economic opportunities, applying a defensive consideration in urban development is very important. In this study, hazard zones in the country were identified and also sensitive buildings of Shahriyar were determined. Doing so, we can prevent financial and physical damages, of parts which are more prone to damage, before the occurrence of war.
This study is applied and the general approach is descriptive-analytical. The studied area is the zone of Shahriar in general and its official area in particular and the population was a number of experts in the public sector (municipalities), private sector (consulting engineers and engineering offices), government sector (Government agencies) and the public.
In order to better recognize the current status and understand the necessity to investigate the passive defense preparations, raw data were collected from the latest census of the country in 2006 and considering the comprehensive studies of Shahriar and getting the relevant maps from the urbanization and housing ministry, the location of the official cite of Shariar was determined in natural, economic and social dimensions and finally, using the matrix table, different levels of decision-making process in devising developmental projects were specified and presented.
Assessing Shahriar official city based on passive defense principles
After having matrix stage and assessing all internal centers and the official region and based on the results obtained, we found that 7 areas of the town center have vital importance in Shahriar, 14 areas have sensitive importance and ultimately, 25 centers are important. Thus, based on the results obtained, we can notice the significance of the centers of this area and we can investigate the application of passive defense principles in these centers. The passive defense principles include: downsizing, dispersion, locating, decentralization, camouflage, strength, coverage, land preparation, defense preparation, deception, cover, etc. It can be claimed that passive defense principles were not considered in Shahriar official cite and what is more important in urban passive defense is downsizing, dispersion, locating, and decentralization. Considering the aggregation of all official units in this town, the town in its entreaty composes a unique goal for the enemy, that if regulated, dispersion, decentralization and passive defense principles egress from a unique goal and they form defense urbanization. Based on the findings of the study, the weaknesses of this town in comparison to passive defense principles are as follows:
Weaknesses of passive defense
Passive defense principles
The current status of Shahriar official city
Easy to access and view
Easy to access and view
Thus, the only positive point or only the main objective which resulted in the aggregation of these centers in one town is the easy access for public and based on the interviews and field studies, it was revealed that in the past, due to the dispersion of each center in different areas of the city, accessing them was rather time-consuming considering the distance. While, with the accumulation of these centers in one area, their accessibility is easier in terms of traffic and time.
Shahriar is a city of the Tehran province and is situated in its west part. It has wide fertile lands and gardens and in addition to the juncture role, it is a dormitory, service provider and a good kitchen garden for Tehran and near cities. Thus, paying special attention to citizens and their service needs, user distribution approach and sensitive and important facilities should not be ignored by planners. Thus, in this attempt, focusing on comprehensive studies on Shahriar and field studies, we try to identify important, sensitive and vital objectives of the city. Considering the input and output of the matrix table, the main areas of the city which should be decentralized include:
Governor (86 points), the gas office (86 points), Tehran South West Water (78 points), gasoline stations (78 points), Army Barracks (Kalhor) (78 points), water and sanitation (75 points), police (74 points). And it is suggested that each of these centers be transferred to one of the surrounding areas of Shahriar including Vahidieh, Ferdosieh, Andishe, Baghestan, Akhtarabad, Ja᾿farie, Amirieh, Fararat and etc. It is emphasized that considering the high cost of this centralization, the vital areas be transferred in the first stage and in order to pass the crisis.