یکی از دلایل احداث شهرهای جدید و سکونتگاههای اقماری در پیرامون کلانشهرها، جذب سرریز جمعیتی مادرشهرها و تمرکززدایی از بخش مرکزی شهرهای بزرگ بوده است. با گذشت چند دهه از زمان ایجاد این سکونتگاهها، بسیاری از ساکنان آنها به این محلها به عنوان اقامتگاههای موقتی مینگرند و در صورت مهیا شدن شرایط مهاجرت به مادرشهر، اقدام به مهاجرت خواهند نمود. پژوهش حاضر از نوع تحلیلی و علی است که میزان گرایش خانوارها به مهاجرت را در سکونتگاههای اقماری ناحیهی شهری اصفهان مطالعه نموده، به بررسی مهمترین عوامل مؤثر بر گرایش به مهاجرت پرداخته و در نهایت، سهم هر یک از این عوامل را در این خصوص تبیین نموده است. یافتههای پژوهش نشان میدهد که 39 درصد خانوارهای مورد مطالعه تمایل به مهاجرت به مادرشهر یا مناطق مرکزی آن دارند. مهمترین عوامل مؤثر در گرایش به مهاجرت به مادرشهر نیز عبارتند از: کمبود و نارسایی امکانات و خدمات درمانی، کمبود فضاهای گذران اوقات فراغت و عدم احساس امنیت کامل. جهت تبیین میزان تأثیر این عوامل -که در این مطالعه «مؤلفههای سلامت زیستی» قلمداد گردیدهاند- بر گرایش به مهاجرت، تحلیل رگرسیون انجام شد و سه متغیر مذکور به عنوان متغیر مستقل و «گرایش به مهاجرت» به عنوان متغیر وابسته منظور گردید. نتیجه-ی تحلیل بیانگر آن است که این سه عامل، 78 درصد از تغییرات را تبیین میکنند. لذا، به نظر میرسد که ارتقاء معیارها و شاخصهای شهر سالم در شهرها و شهرکهای جدید و سکونتگاههای اقماری با تأکید بر سه شاخص مذکور میتواند در کاهش گرایش خانوارهای ساکن در سکونتگاههای اقماری ناحیهی شهری اصفهان به مهاجرت به مادرشهر تأثیر بسزایی داشته باشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Effect of Life Health Factors on Tendency to Migration in Satellite Settlements of Isfahan
The absorption of the overflow of population has been one of the main reasons for establishing new towns and satellite settlements on the periphery of metropolises. A few decades after beginnings of the establishment of these settlements, many residents of new towns look these places as temporary settlement, and if prerequisites of migration are prepared, they would migrate to metropolis as soon as possible. This paper is analytical and causal research that investigates the factors affecting population migration in satellite settlements of Isfahan city. For this purpose and at first step, peopleâs tendency to migration was examined in studied settlements for positive cases, the main factors affecting this tendency were questioned finally these factors were analyzed to determine their portion in this respect. The questionnaire survey was designed to collect needed data, and analysis of data was done by using the method of regression analysis applying SPSS software.
As previously mentioned the first step of this study devoted to investigate the rate of householdsâ tendency to migration. Then, among households with positive tendency, related affecting factors were studied based on this research these factors are as follows: shortcomings in health and curative services, shortage of leisure time spending spaces and shortage of security. The intrinsic importance of these factors is attributed as follow.
World Health Organization recognized health as a state or quality of complete physical, emotional, social, economic, cultural and spiritual well-being (Marotz, 2008). Each of these dimensions points one of the main aspects of human health, yet they have close relationship and reciprocal effects. âBasically four important groups of determinants can be distinguished: life-style, the physical environment, the social environment and endogenous individual attributes, either genetic or acquired during life The physical and social environments, as well as life-style are regarded as exogenous determinantsâ (de Hollander and Staatsen, 2003).
âUrban ecosystem health is not defined as a standard quantitative measurement, but rather described as what healthy urban ecosystems should or should not contain. This statement reflects the vagueness of urban ecosystem health. Based on the acknowledged need to sustainably integrate reasonable human demands and the ecosystem's ability for renewal, the inclusive factors of a healthy urban ecosystem can be drafted from both the human and ecological dimensionsâ (Su et al., 2010, 2427).
Mental restfulness and psychological health is one of important dimensions of human health that is affected by life environment attributes. In this respect, âA prerequisite for a sustainable urban environment is that it should not pose a threat to current or future users. The reduction of threats to personal health and the natural environment are the objectives commonly associated with the idea of sustainable urban development. However, in a sustainable urban environment it is also essential that the inhabitants should not have cause for fear for their personal safety and the safety of possessionsâ(Cozens, 2002 Du Plessis, 1999). CPTED (crime prevention through environmental design) is defined by Crowe (2000) as âthe proper design and effective use of the built environment which can lead to a reduction in the fear of crime and the incidence of crime, and to an improvement in the quality of lifeâ. It involves the design and management of the physical environment to reduce the opportunities for crime (Cozens, 2002).
WHO has sought to place health more centrally on the sustainable development agenda (Schirnding, 2002). Sustainable development cannot be achieved if there is a high prevalence of debilitating illness and poverty, and the health of populations cannot be maintained without healthy environments and intact life-support systems (Schirnding, 2002). Poor health may cause entire families to drop into abject poverty, because of inability to work or the necessity to sell assets in order to pay for treatment (Smith et al., 2009). Regional inequality in health could be a result of inequalities in economic development, public health expenditures, and health care services (Fanga et al., 2010). For some, a commitment to equity in health means that all social groups should have a basic minimum level of well-being and services (Braveman and Tarimo, 2002). Today, investment in health is touted as the route to economic development. Substantially increased fund allocations for health, from both domestic and external aid, are promised to usher in economic growth (John and Abel, 2002).
Urban planners have become increasingly interested in how they can help improve human health (Slotterback et al., 2011). It is widely recognized that the spatial planning of human urban activity is affecting quality of life, health and well-being (Barton, 2009). Health and land use planning are historically linked. Modern planning originated in the nineteenth century expressly in order to combat unhealthy conditions. It was recognized then, and still is, that there is an umbilical link between environmental conditions and human health. The environment is seen as one of the key determinants of health, alongside inherited characteristics, lifestyles, and social and economic variables (Barton, 2009).
The result of study show that 39 percent of households tend to migrate to metropolis. The most important factors affecting on tendency to migration to metropolis are as follows: shortcomings in health and curative services, shortage of leisure time spending spaces and shortage of security these factors was named as âLife Health Factorsâ.
For determining the rate of effect of selected factors on tendency to migration, regression analysis was used in this way, mentioned three factors were assumed as independent variable and tendency to migration as dependent variable. Results show that these factors explain 78% of the changes of tendency to migration. So, it seems that improvement of healthy city indicators in new towns and satellite settlements - whose one of their main goals is absorption of metropolisesâ overflow population- emphasizing mentioned three factors can decrease their peopleâs tendency to migration to metropolis.
The main goals of establishing new towns and satellite settlements in Iran were decentralization, absorption of the overflow of metropolisesâ population etc. Achieving this goal depends on making new towns as healthy environments because these settlements should be alive and responsive enough to be effective in the way of requested aims. The result of this study shows that life health and environmental health are of great importance in this respect shortcomings in health and curative services, shortage of leisure time spending spaces and shortage of security were main factors effecting population tendency to migration from new towns and satellite settlements to metropolis or downtown. All of these factors are related to human health dimensions in fact, the mentioned factors have close link with mental restfulness and psychological health, health services etc.
However, if new towns and satellite settlements of metropolises are not healthy environments, they cannot act effective in maintaining absorbed people, and they would be seen as temporary settlements and consequently they would not achieved their predicted goals. So, for preventing or decreasing these migrations, improvement of the healthy city indicators and life health factors in periphery settlements is necessary In fact, the environment of these settlements should have enough attractions to decrease migration tendency.