نویسندگان

چکیده

بر اساس آمار سازمان جهانی گردشگری ملل متحد، در سال 2009 گذرنامه 880 میلیون نفر در سراسر دنیا ممهور به مهر مسافرت شده و به عنوان مسافران بین‌المللی شناخته شده‌اند و از این رهگذر در حدود هزار میلیارد دلار نصیب کشورهای مختلف دنیا شده است. در این بین، مروری بر شرایط گردشگری بین‌المللی کشورهای منطقه خاورمیانه چه از نظر بازارها و درآمدهای ناشی از آن و چه از نظر میزان ورود گردشگران، گویای چالشهای عدیده این منطقه از دنیاست. بنابراین در این مقاله، به مقوله امنیت و ثبات سیاسی به عنوان یکی از مهمترین چالشهای فراروی صنعت گردشگری کشورهای منطقه خاورمیانه پرداخته شد. جهت بررسی رابطه بین توسعه گردشگری در حوزه کشورهای خاورمیانه و فضای سیاسی- امنیتی این منطقه، از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی استفاده شد. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که نوسان و عدم تعادل شدید در میزان گردشگران ورودی به کشورهای این منطقه، ارتباط بسیار نزدیکی با تحولات سیاسی در عرصه جهانی (چون استراتژی مبارزه با تروریسم بین‌الملل)، فضای سیای- امنیتی منطقه خاورمیانه (چون تشدید اقدامات گروههای بنیادگرا) و شرایط داخلی کشورهای این منطقه (چون رژیمهای استبدادی) دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An Study on the Effects of the Political Stability and Security in Tourism Development, Case Study: Middle East

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Heydari C
  • N. Soltani
  • N. Soltani

چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1- Introduction
The political situation in the realm of international, regional, national and local is lead to instability in markets and tourist destinations and The security would affect tourism industry. Challenges such as war, terrorism, the growing insecurity, serious border controls, and enforcement serious regulations on visa issuance, the ideological conflict between nations and political instability and security are the factors preventing the development of tourism in some countries and will remain an important factor in the future. Despite such conditions, still we have slow growth in international tourism. But the tourism industry in some countries has suffered serious damage and has been a sharp decline in the share of tourism industry in these countries and increase the share of other countries.
The purpose of this study was to answer the question that the political and security situation ruling in the region has had a negative impact on tourism industry growth in Middle East countries? Despite the undeniable influence of factors such as infrastructure, laws and regulations, foreign relations, tourism attractions, tourism industry marketing and much more on the dynamics of a country or region, political and security issues is the factor of Underdevelopment of tourism in these countries.

Methodology
To examine the relationship between tourism development and security and political situation in the Middle East region was used for descriptive - analytical method. According to World Tourism Organization, the Middle East including Jordan, United Arabic Emirates, Bahrain, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt and Yemen. According to scholars of political science, are Iran, Turkey, Israel, Algeria, Tunisia, Sudan and Morocco in the region. Sensitivity and effectiveness of the three political units (Turkey, Iran and Israel) in Middle East security concerns, we forced to use their tourism statistics and the low status of tourism in Libya, it was ignored.

Discussion
Tourism industry in the Middle East region has been serious affected by political and security conditions of international, regional and national. According to statistics of arrival tourists to the region from 1990 to 2009 there is a serious fluctuation in the arrival of tourists to the region. In this context, there are three points:
- The first Persian Gulf War in 1990 and the second Persian Gulf War in 2003.
- 11 September 2001 attacks.
- Negative consequences of anti-terrorism strategy.
After these three events occurred a dramatic change in the nationality of Entrance tourists to the region. For example, after September 11, we’re in the Middle East region saw a sharp decline in citizens traveling to Western countries. The decrease occurred in Middle East countries citizens traveling to Western countries. In general, the tourism industry countries such as Yemen, Iraq, Palestine and Iran have been greatly influenced by the political and security situation in the Middle East. And countries such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt, only through religious tourism and passenger arrival of Muslim countries have had significant growth.

Conclusion
Search results on the relationship between political stability and security and tourism market in the region shows that Capabilities and abilities tourism industry in the Middle East has been affected by issues such as fragile security, political stability of the time eating, lack of effective policy making, centralized political structure, low level of regional cooperation, Maintenance of traditional boundaries and cultural conflicts in the Middle East. In between, the role of political instability and frequent phenomenon in recent years, such enforcement of terrorism and violent acts against international tourists has been very influential on regional tourism.
Thus, political stability and security as an effective component in the development of international tourism has suffered many losses in recent years and with the improved security situation in the region, tourism will grow significantly. But the uncertainty of public and private sectors to invest in this economy - with the exception of Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iran in recent years, there is a significant achievement for the region in international markets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tourism industry
  • Governmental Management
  • Security
  • Political Stability
  • Middle East