کتابخانههای عمومی به عنوان یکی از شاخصهای مهم توسعه فرهنگی شهرها و از مهم ترین کانونهای فرهنگی – اجتماعی جوامع پیشرفته امروز است و مانند تمامی کاربریهای شهری از رشد و توسعه فیزیکی ارگانیک شهری در ایران متأثر شده است. با توجه به وسعت مخاطبان کتابخانههای عمومی قشرهای مختلف جامعه را شامل می شود، این مراکز، نقشی زیربنایی در توسعه اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی جوامع برعهده دارند. در حال حاضر شهر بروجرد به عنوان یک شهر متوسط اندام و در حال رشد با کمبود این کاربری مواجه است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از مطالعات توصیفی – میدانی و بهره گیری از دیدگاه فازی انجام شده است. نتایج تحقیق گویای آن است که وضعیت موجود کتابخانههای عمومی شهر بروجرد توانایی پاسخ گویی به نیازهای حال و آینده ساکنین شهر را ندارد و ازسویی سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی(GIS) با استفاده از تحلیلهای سلسله مراتبی(AHP) در نرم افزار Expert choice و در نظر گرفتن معیارهای کتابخانههای عمومی موجود، همجواریهایهای سازگار و ناسازگار شهری، تراکم جمعیت و شیب مکانهای بهینه ای جهت احداث کتابخانههای عمومی پیشنهاد داده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Spatial distribution and locating of public libraries in Borujerd city Using AHP model and GIS technique
The sharp rise of urban population and lack of financial, technical and infrastructure facilities for public and social land uses in last decades caused Heterogeneity and an imbalance in the distribution of different facilities in the city (Poor Mohammadi and et.al, 2010: 9). On the other hand, in the present century new changes led to a rapid extension of service sector so that based on available statistics about 70% of workforce are employed in the service sector. The statics shows the importance of service sector and its role on development of countries (Mir Maghfoori and Maki, 2007: 40). Due to the type of land useselection of used indexes are different. But all of them must be aligned. Using these indexes need to extensive and comprehensive research. Only after combining and analyzing collected data and evaluating them, there will be the opportunity of spatial decision. Extend, spatial attraction, using available space and all the things that depend on them must be classified and standardized (Lotfi and et.al, 2010: 45). From the point of view of urban planning, public library is one of the most important cultural structures within cities and needs to pay special attention to them. In large cities that infrastructures had been created in different periods, the development of urban infrastructures will bring new problems for city. These things are not too problematic in large cities but much of the population and the expansion of cities and their structures are added, more than ever we will feel the need to plan. Pay attention to such problems, not only will reduce urban problems but also will reduce the total cost and the pressure on citizens and will reduce the financial burden on municipalities and governmental agencies (Shie, 2003: 188). Borujerd is located in Borujerd city and at the north of Lorestan province. In recent decades the city has seen extensive development and rapid population changes. So it caused migration growth, increased construction, increased urban areas and formation of multiple land uses. So that, in 1956 number of residents was 49186 and in 2011 this number became 240654.Despite of fundamental changes in the physical context in the recent decades, but one of the most important problems in Borujerd is lack of cultural spaces, especially public libraries and we can find out this by comparing the statistics of population and per capitapublic libraries. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate the status of public libraries in the city of Borujerd and taking necessary criterions determine suitable locations for the construction new public libraries.
The research method is analytic-functional we used library and field methods to collect data. This research aims to identify existing status and locatingpublic libraries of Borujerd. So, at the beginning we did library studies in the field of land use, public libraries, and discussed issues related to data analysis then we used field method to study the status of public libraries and we have chosen necessary criteria and sub-criteria in AHP technique. We used multivariate decision rules by Expert Choice software for paired comparisons of criteria and sub-criteria to prepare for the analysis of layers for spatial analysis in GIS and finally we proposed optimal locations to construct public libraries in Borujerd.
According to the public libraries institution website and field studies of writers in 2014, there is 5 active public libraries in Borujerd that totally have 3200 square meters infrastructure. Their characteristics are listed in table (1). According to the international federation of library associations and library institutions (IFLA) in cities with more than 100000 people we need 28 square meters for per thousand people (Ashrafi, 2009: 101).According to the population and housing census statistical centre of Iran in 2014, the population of Borujerd was 240654 and these people need 6738/312 square meters, thus according to these reasons, the shortage of this kind of land use in Borujerd city and locating new center is justified. We considered the access contour to existing libraries in Borujerd about 1500 meters, and is divided to five sub-criteria that as we move away from their privacy, the priviledge of rasters will increase. In this study we considered residential, firefighter, educational, sports, green space, religious and administrative land uses as compatible land uses and business, health, industrial, facilities-service and public parking land uses as incompatible land uses. The much population density in an area is more, the services in that area are more needed and cultural land users are not exception too. Population density in locating of public libraries in Borujerd is considered in 5 categories. Proper slope is another criterion of locating the public libraries, because there is no matter how beautiful a place is made but the slope criteria is not considered the intended land use will not be able to show their maximum performance in the urban system and economically the project will fail. This indicator is considered at best between 12- 0/5. The final map in a range of appropriate land to the most appropriate location for the establishment of public libraries in Borujerd is determined and is showed in figure 8. According to table 5 from 35170085/83 square meters of raster resulting from final map, 7/16 inappropriate lands, 19/79 average lands, 71/27 percentage of appropriate lands and 7/79 percentage of land uses are suitable for the construction of public libraries in Borujerd. Among this range perfectly appropriate lands have the most importance.
Locating a wrong land use might eliminate health, welfare and comfort of residents in a neighborhood or even the entire city. Cultural land uses directly impact on all social, economic or even political aspects of people and especially the libraries that promote the awareness of people and play an important role in this field, and lack of them have the retrogressive process in the societies. In addition to the quality of a library on system and its internal mechanism is positively correlated with the location of this land use in the other urban land uses, and this will be effective in the perseveration and sustainability of libraries. During the performed surveys in this research indicated that Borujerd, according to the number of population of the last statistic of Population and Housing Censusin 2011, (240654 people) have to face with 3538/312 square meters shortage of land uses of library. In this study was an attempt using GIS software and fuzzy viewpoint and avoid one- dimensional view of economic advantage for locating library land use, optimal places are proposed.