برخی از روستاهای کشور با مشکلات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی مواجه بوده و در آنها کمتر اثری از توسعه پایدار دیده میشود. با توجه به ماهیت اکوتوریسم و همخوانی و سازگاری آن با توسعه پایدار، این فعالیت میتواند رونق اقتصادی روستا را بدنبال داشته و سلامت اجتماعی و حفظ محیط زیست را تضمین نماید. هدف تحقیق، مطالعه اثرات اکوتوریسم بر توسعه پایدار روستای دهبالا در استان یزد میباشد. سؤال اصلی پژوهش این است که اکوتوریسم چه اثراتی بر روی توسعه پایدار روستاهای مورد مطالعه داشته است. شاخصهای مورد استفاده شامل شاخصهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی- فرهنگی و زیستمحیطی میباشد که برای هر کدام با استفاده از نظرات کارشناسان گویههای مرتبط تعریف شده است. جامعه آماری مورد مطالعه شامل 10 روستا از مجموعه روستایی دهبالا میباشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- پیمایشی بوده و دادهها و اطلاعات مورد نیاز با استفاده از منابع و اسناد کتابخانهای و انجام مطالعات میدانی جمعآوری و سپس با بهکارگیری نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج بهدست آمده نشان میدهد که مهمترین اثر اکوتوریسم بر روستاها، گسترش خانههای دوم بوده است. همچنین جمعبندی نتایج حاصل از تحلیل عاملی نشان داد که اکوتوریسم در بعد اقتصادی موجب ایجاد درآمد و اشتغالزایی برای مردم محلی شده و در دو بعد اجتماعی- فرهنگی و زیستمحیطی آسیبهای متعددی را به دنبال داشته است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Ecotourism effects on sustainable development of desert rural areas set in rural villages Dhbala Shirkooh, Yazd Province
Rural tourism cans a strategy for the comprehensive development of economic, environmental and social. Rural tourism can play an important economic impact on rural areas. Rural touristsâ paid For purchase of local goods and services. Also, rural tourism can be a major role in empowering local people and to economic growth and create new job opportunities closely with other economic sectors to play a role (Sharif-Zadeh and Moradnezhad, 1381: 52). This study examined the effects of economic, social - cultural and environmental development of rural ecotourism in desert areas (villages Shirkooh located in Yazd province). Ecological role of these villages will mean in the areas of national development goals with the capabilities of these villages in order to combat desertification and droughts risks, deal with soil erosion and degradation, preservation of natural resources and micro-climate, Therefore, if development means the normal interaction of ecological systems, social and economic know, then the villages located in the desert areas of the country plays a major role in achieving sustainable development (Taherkhani, 1382: 235). These villages in order to its role in sustainable development must in the first, their experience of sustainable development. However, the large number of villages, with potential revenue sources and opportunities, such as favorable weather in the desert, geomorphologic forms, attractive sky, illuminated by the sun, fountains, aqueducts, plant and animal life, sandy hills, domes saline, valleys, mountains and other natural attractions are to develop ecotourism.
This study seeks to answer this question is: what effects on ecotourism sustainable development of rural areas has been studied? With these questions, the following hypothesis is proposed:
Ecotourism seems to have positive effects on economic, social and environmental study area is on the villages.
The research study is applied. Given the topic, objectives and hypothesis, the method descriptive - survey and data gathering is both library and field. A case study is also considered to increase the accuracy. The study sample of 11 villages in the rural villages Dhbala Shirkooh functions Yazd province with a population of 1018 people (393 households) are included.
Cochran formula was used to determine sample size of 131 which it was obtained.
After determining the sample size, rural population under the 20 families studied in three (3 villages), 20 to 40 households (3 villages) and 40 households (4 villages) were separated and third floors of the three villages Mhsn farm, Janborazan and orchards were studied. The method of sampling, questionnaires was completed in the rural sample. Completing the questionnaire on 30 villagers and assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha internal consistency of 72/0 relative reliability of the questionnaire was established.
In order to analyze the data, the classification of data and preparation of tables, â test using SPSS statistical software such as frequency distribution, the mean and median averages were calculated. The next step, in order to identify the effects of ecotourism on the villages, with related resources and use of teachers and experts from 10 economic components, 18 and 11 components, environmental and social components was identified. Finally, with the aim of finding and summarizing the effects of latent component factor analysis was used to test a limited number of effects. The researchers conducted a factor analysis on the effects of economic, social and environmental impacts of ecotourism in the identified villages hidden in the area.
The results indicate a major effect on the five villages is studied. These effects include:
Expansion of second homes Ecotourism has the most effect on the villages studied, the construction of second homes in the village was Dehbala. The phenomenon of the decade 70-80 shaped and heavily influenced by the rural landscape is increasingly becoming an increasing number are made.
Creation and expansion of second homes in rural areas, thereby creating jobs, such as real estate offices and sales of building materials has been. The jobs in the villages, which are new to the buying and selling land in the region, increasing the likelihood of jobs in the near future, there. Of these houses, residential land prices increased and agricultural lands and orchards have been.
The changing nature of rural
Ecotourism is another of the series Dhbala villages, the rural nature of it. This change largely influenced by external relations with the neighboring village is. The expansion of these relations is promoting urban culture and away from rural culture. Feature of the village, quiet and calm and beautiful environment that is The development of ecotourism and the environmental damage caused Eco tourists villages and increased pollution of solid waste entering the tourists to the village and also noise pollution is increasing. Also enter this Eco tourists, some anomalies in rural development and conflict between villagers and tourists have been seeking. Most conflicts result from the unauthorized entry of tourists into the rural lands and gardens and the unusual behavior and anomalies of tourists.
The principal component analysis of field studies and related social indicators - makes clear that the social and cultural - cultural development of ecotourism entered into, is not looking very positive effects, But these positive effects also should not be ignored, for example, socializing and communicating between local residents and tourists, residents drive to increase literacy levels and awareness of what is going on around them.
Equipping village facilities
villages in the study area in recent years witnessed the expansion of basic services (water, electricity, telecommunications, etc.) were. Network can improve communication with neighboring regions, including rural areas, plumbing, water supply, electricity supply and telecommunications facilities, build schools, develop the rural landscape and would like it. These facilities increase due to the location of residences are rural. With studies done by researchers shows that ecotourism has had little effect on equipping rural facilities.
It should be noted that in the villages studied ecotourism mostly climbing, use of scenery, weather factors and the like, and such activities do not require the creation of recreational units. Another thing that is remarkable, reluctance of villagers to build recreation centers, youth villages, because they only have to do to earn a livelihood and recreation.
Increasing of Population
Another impact of ecotourism in villages, positive population growth rates in four villages (Janborazan, Shiekhalishah, Ghorogh and Zyrebaghshah) is To the effect that the phenomenon of second homes and tourism also improve local streets and roads in the area that has had considerable vogue in recent years.
Summarize the results of factor analysis shows that the economic dimension of ecotourism income and employment for local people and in two dimensions - social, cultural and environmental damage has been followed. Improve the economic status of rural land for sale due to owners of second homes. Owners of the homes of some villagers have been hired to guard and protect their homes. Including social impacts - such as increased cultural abnormalities, increased conflict between villagers and tourists and the urban culture and away from the rural culture. However, ecotourism in the region has positive effects on the environment and conclusion of the spread ecotourism, destruction of vegetation and pastures, environment, sound and play different types of waste in rural areas. Thus the need for proper management and sustainable ecotourism in the rural area is characterized by patterns Special place in villages, because leisure area residents are capable of Yazd province, and the long-term plan does not prepare for them, life is at risk for these villages.