امروزه گردشگری به عنوان یک صنعت پر درآمد در سطح دنیا شناخته میشود. بازار جذب گردشگر در حال حاضر به صورت بازار رقابت پذیری در آمده و فراهم آوردن تسهیلات مورد نیاز گردشگران و بهبود امکانات برای آنها در این میان از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است.از جمله تسهیلات مورد نیاز گردشگران، خدمات حمل ونقل در جهت آسان سازی رسیدن آنها به مقاصد گردشگری است. جابجایی گردشگران در مقیاس انبوه موجب افزایش فشار به شبکههای ارتباطی شده و به ازدحام ترافیکی و عواقب آن دامن می زند. شناسایی الگوی جابجایی گردشگری می تواند در انتخاب راهبردهای بازاریابی مناسب به متولیان و شرکتهای خدمات گردشگری موثر واقع شود. امکانات مناسب جابجایی باعث تقویت ارتباط گردشگران با جامعه محلی و موجب استفاده مؤثر آنها از فرصتهای پیش رو میشود. با توجه به توان گردشگری کلانشهر شیراز، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی الگوهای رفتاری گردشگرها در انتخاب نحوه جابجایی و شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر آن صورت گرفته است.در این راستا، دادههای اولیه از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه(n=100)جمع آوری شده و مورد تجزیه و تحلیل توصیفی و تحلیلی قرار گرفته اند. با بهره گیری از تحلیل همبستگی و مدل رگرسیون لجستیک اسمی چند وجهی مشخص گردید که عواملی همچون نوع سفر،چگونگی دسترسی به جاذبههای گردشگری، کیفیت راهها، امنیت، ایمنی، وقت شناسی، تعداد همراهان، فاصله، ستاره هتل، آشنایی با زبان فارسی و هزینه سفر مهمترین عوامل تأثیر گزار بر انتخاب شیوه جابجایی توسط گردشگران هستند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysing the Travel Pattern of Foreign Tourists and the Factors Affecting it, the Case Study of Shiraz
Despite the many tourist attractions of Shiraz, the city lacks efficient transportation facilities for foreign tourists in order to easeing their movement through the urban area or outside destinations. It is required to discover efficient transport modes which comply with the tastes and demands of tourists. Also it is important to understand the factors affecting the modal choice. This study investigates the movement patterns of foreign tourists and the factors influencing their modal choice. The purpose of this study is to identify the overall image of behavioral patterns of foreign tourists in order to an efficient planning for tourism in the city of Shiraz.
This cross-sectional study is based on a field study. The required information was collected through the questionnaire filled by tourists who visited the city landmarks, including the tomb of Saadi, Hafez mausoleum, Vakil Bazaar, etc. A sample of 100 is taken. The behavior of tourists in selecting a mode is taken as the dependent variable. The independent variables include the type of trip, how to access tourist attractions, quality of roads and vehicles, security, safety, punctuality, number of partners, distance, hotel quality (star), familiarity with the Persian language and travel expense. Two analytical methods were applied: a) the descriptive analysis of the general characteristics of tourists b) statistical analysis including multi-nominal logistic regression, Chi-square test, and Cramer's coefficient. Therefore both casual and correlation analyses are applied to investigate the relationships between dependent and independent variables.
Based on the sampling carried out, 60 percent of these people have traveled by plane to Shiraz and 28 percent were via bus to the city, while about 10 percent by car (car rental) and 2 percent have traveled by train to Shiraz. According to the survey result, most of the tourists were satisfied with the security, safety and attitude, and least satisfied with the quality of vehicles, roads and punctuality. The correlation test results indicate that the choice of travel was associated with a number of factors such as the type of journey, how access to tourist attractions, quality roads, security, safety, punctuality, number of partners, distance, hotel quality, familiarity with the Persian language and travel costs. Also the number of partners showed to be an important factor. In fact, those who travel alone, have more freedom in choosing a mode. The hotel features which is reflected in its number of stars also played an important role in the choice of travel by tourists. High quality hotels offered more movment facilities including rentl cars or vans available for guests. The majority of trips made by car were though the rental cars which are offered by hosting hotels. Furthermore, proficiency in Persian had been a signifact factor in choosing a travel mode by tourists. In fact, since most tourists were not familiar with the Persian language, they preferred rent a car or tour bus which had the driver as a tour leader. Punctuality or predictablity in travel time and waiting time had a significant relationship with the choice of vehicle. According to touristsâ opinion, punctuality and timely movement of vehicles and less waiting time help tourists to have a better visiting plan and to speed up the process of their journey.
In this study, the general travel behaviour of 100 tourists in Shiraz was studied. The survey showed that the majority of tourists arrived to this city by plane. The correlation between modal choice and a number of variables such as the type of journey, how access to tourist attractions, road quality, vehicle quality, safety, security, punctuality, number of partners, travel distance, hotel quality, familarity with Persian language, and the cost of travel was studied.
The results of this study can be used to make policy recommendations in hope of reducing negative aspects of hospititality. Some of recomondations include: creating a network of semi-public transport for tourists which is independent from the current public transport network providing more options for tourism travel increasing the quality of current vehicles and improving the percieved security in urban areas for encouraging tourists to walk around. According to feel and experience of tourists in car use (taxi, rental cars), it is necessary for tourist taxis that serve specific routes to provide sufficient facilities. It is necessary to taxi drivers to be mastered at least one foreign language, learn how to deal with the tourists and obey timetables. Also by the creation of bicycle paths in touristic areas the use of cars can be reduced. Moreover, with increasing legibility of urban areas and sufficient lightening, the readability of city for tourists will be improved.