مهمترین جنبة ثبت جهانی بافت تاریخی شهر یزد در سال 1396، سکونت مردم و وجود جریان زندگی روزمره و پیوسته در آن بوده است و برخورداری از سطح مناسبی از کیفیت زندگی، لازمة ادامة این روند است؛ اما در حال حاضر بیش از نیمی از بلوکهای آماری بافت تاریخی شهر یزد با 33958 نفر جمعیت، رشد منفی جمعیت دارد و حدود یکسوم بلوکها با موضوع مهاجرفرستی روبهرو هستند. در واکنش به این تهدید، این پژوهش سعی دارد ضمن تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر چگونگی کیفیت زندگی در محلات بافت تاریخی یزد، وضعیت آن را از جنبههای ذهنی و عینی تعیین کند.
پژوهش حاضر ازلحاظ ماهیت، کاربردی و ازنظر روش، علّی است. برای گردآوری دادهها و تجزیه و تحلیل آنها از فنون بررسیهای اسنادی، میدانی بهصورت پرسشگری، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و نرمافزارهایSuper-Decisions, IBM SPSS Statistics 25 و ARC GIS 10.5 استفاده و حجم نمونه نیز به روش کوکران، 371 خانوار تعیین شد.
یافتههای پژوهش نشان میدهد امنیت، کیفیت محیط، روابط همسایگی، حملونقل، حس تعلق، ویژگیهای کالبدی ابنیه و خدمات و زیرساختها، هفت عامل عمدة مؤثر بر کیفیت زندگی در بافت تاریخی شهر یزد هستند. البته میزان تأثیر این عوامل بر کیفیت زندگی فعلی مردم ساکن این بافت یکسان نیست؛ عامل کیفیت محیط شامل کیفیت فضای سبز، وضعیت معابر و پیادهروها و...، بیشترین میزان تأثیرگذاری را دارد. عامل روابط همسایگی شامل میزان دعوا و درگیری بین همسایگان و میزان حمایت همسایگان از یکدیگر، کمترین میزان تأثیرگذاری را دارد. وضعیت کیفیت زندگی از جنبة ذهنی که با میزان رضایتمندی ساکنان سنجیده شد، بهطور کلی در تمامی ۹ محلة بافت تاریخی نامطلوب است؛ اما در مقایسه با جنبة عینی از وضعیت مناسبتری برخوردار است. درمجموع و براساس نقشة پهنهبندی تولیدشده، محلة زرتشتیها سطح کیفیت زندگی مطلوبتری نسبت به سایر محلات دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Assessing the Quality of Life in the Historic District Neighborhoods and Factors affecting it Case Study: Historic District of Yazd City
1.1. Problem Statement
One of the new trends that has had a tremendous impact on the process of changing the views and methods of urban planning in the second half of the twentieth century is the social and qualitative theories of development.
Accordingly, the main purpose of this study is to assess the quality of life in the historical context of Yazd by using indicators appropriate to the nature of life and culture of its inhabitants. The historical fabric of Yazd was once dynamic and solid with a structure and function appropriate to the needs of its inhabitants. But today it faces many problems including the departure of the indigenous population and its replacement with non-indigenous people (Vaziri, 2017, p. 34; Sarai & Alyan, 2015, p. 82), various behavioral disorders and insecurity, low-income residents (Zangiabadi et al., 2015: 133), high unemployment, pettiness land plots (ibid., 145), the existence of incompatible uses in the vicinity of residential structures, low environmental quality, and the multiplicity of unsanitary space.
The neighborhoods of the historical fabric of Yazd are not in a favorable situation in terms of stability (Sarai & Alian, 2015, p. 79; Zangiabadi et al., 2015, p. 154). However, life in this context- which shows the cultural identity of different periods of Yazd history- is ongoing and its body is largely responsible for urban life (Razeghi & Horandi, 2018, p. 70). Still, the goal of 73% of Yazd tourists is to visit historical places (Dehghanapour Farashah, 2016, p. 17). Therefore, the development of a development framework or any appropriate intervention that guarantees its sustainable survival depends on the awareness of the many quality of life in this fabric.
Given the above issues, the research question is as follows:
- What is the quality of life in the historical fabric of Yazd and which neighborhood has the highest quality of life?
2. Research Methodology
2.1. Research Method
In addition to the four dimensions of the type of index, the degree of specificity of the indicators (localization of indicators), scale, and time, the fifth dimension is dedicated to the importance of quality of life of different social groups in the city. The urban population may be distinguished from a large number of certain levels including class, age, lifestyle, gender, and ethnicity (ibid., 22). Therefore, the prevailing approach to examine the quality of life in the scale of Yazd historical context in this article is a combined approach (using objective and subjective indicators). In the first stage, after reviewing the existing theoretical foundations and previous researches, especially in Iran, a list of objective and subjective criteria was prepared. By referring to the neighborhoods and in-depth and exploratory interviews, the type of criteria and sub-criteria were reviewed and corrected in accordance with the "social and cultural conditions of the residents" and the "accessibility of the required data". The social group selected as the statistical population is the heads of households living in the neighborhoods in 2018 (time of data collection).
The second stage was dedicated to empirical studies in which the quality of life in 9 neighborhoods of the historical context of Yazd was measured from both mental and objective perspectives. At this stage and in the first step, to understand the level of residents' satisfaction with their living environment (measuring the quality of mental life) according to the research criteria, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among households living in neighborhoods and completed in a face-to-face interview. The total sample size was determined by Cochran's method, 371 households. The basis for determining the share of samples in neighborhoods is the relative share of the number of households living in each neighborhood out of a total of 10,795 households living in the historical context in the last official census of the Statistics Center of Iran in 2016. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaires and according to the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.768), it was concluded that the research tool has good reliability.
In the second step of the second stage, based on the results obtained from completing the questionnaires and using the technique of "exploratory factor analysis", the factors affecting the quality of life and the role and importance of each in the quality of life in certain neighborhoods were determined.
In the third step, the quality of the objective and mental life of the residents was measured in parallel. For subjective assessment, after processing the data obtained from the questionnaires, during the overlapping process of the layers related to each questionnaire and according to the scores obtained using the ANP technique, a zoning map of residents' satisfaction with the quality of life in the historical context was produced separately for each neighborhood. In parallel, to measure the objective quality of life of 9 neighborhoods, in a GIS environment, a one-by-one map of criteria and sub-criteria and finally a zoning map of the objective quality of life of the historical context of Yazd by each neighborhood from the overlap of layers (according to AN produced.
Table 1. Dimensions, Criteria, and Sub-criteria of the Research
under the criteria
Owners' willingness to invest in improving their property
How to seize property
Sense of belonging
Not wanting to immigrate
The degree of intimacy between the residents of the neighborhood and happiness
The extent of cooperation to solve neighborhood problems
The rate of theft of money, gold, and property
The traffic of evil and delinquent people
Pedestrian traffic safety at night
Security of women and children
Ruined places and wrong places
The lighting of passages and alleys
Access to public transport
Public transport safety
Access to parking
Services and infrastructure
Condition of sidewalks and sidewalks
Access to health centers
Access to commercial use
Access to cultural-sports centers
Access to educational use
Access to green space and park
Area of buildings
Quality of buildings
The crowd and crowded environment
(Noise pollution caused by motorcycle traffic)
Graffiti, ruined places, etc. (visual pollution)
Green space quality
How to collect garbage
Today, the quality of urban life is one of the new concerns of urban management and planning institutions, and accordingly, planners are trying to show the quality of life at different geographical levels. Meanwhile, the evaluation of the quality of life in the historical context and the value of our country's cities, which show the cultural identity of different periods of this country's history, is effective in identifying the current situation, awareness of their strengths, shortcomings and possible shortcomings. In this regard, one of the best models of evaluation is the simultaneous use of objective and subjective indicators, and ignoring each of these indicators creates problems in urban planning; Therefore, in this article, the quality of life of the historical context of Yazd in relation to economic, social, environmental and physical-spatial dimensions and developed criteria related to each dimension and in accordance with the local characteristics of the region were measured.
The results of measuring the quality of life in the historical context of Yazd showed that security, quality of the environment, neighborhood relations, transportation, sense of belonging, physical characteristics of buildings and services and infrastructure are seven major factors affecting the quality of life in the historical context of Yazd; Of course, the importance of these factors in the current quality of life of people living in this context is not the same. Environmental quality factor has been far more important than other factors affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants of the historical context of Yazd (to see all the identified influencing factors, please refer to tables 5 and 6).
Residents of the historical context of Yazd city have expressed dissatisfaction with the status of most of the quality of life indicators selected by the research, and the highest level of dissatisfaction has been with the lighting and asphalt of roads and alleys and noise and visual pollution in the area. Satisfaction surveys from 33 selected research indicators indicate that the level of satisfaction with security and neighborhood relations is at the highest level and satisfaction with the quality of the environment and services and infrastructure is at the lowest level.
The results obtained from the quality of life zoning map of the historical context of Yazd also indicate that the Zoroastrian neighborhood has a better quality of life than other neighborhoods in the research area and the neighborhoods of Shash Badgiri and Fahadan have the lowest quality of life.